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Pambazuka News Pambazuka News is produced by a pan-African community of some 2,600 citizens and organisations - academics, policy makers, social activists, women's organisations, civil society organisations, writers, artists, poets, bloggers, and commentators who together produce insightful, sharp and thoughtful analyses and make it one of the largest and most innovative and influential web forums for social justice in Africa.

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    Back Issues


    * 2478 SUBSCRIBERS *

    Introducing Kabissa - Space for change in Africa

    CONTENTS: 1. Features, 2. Advocacy & campaigns, 3. Books & arts, 4. Letters & Opinions, 5. Women & gender, 6. Human rights, 7. Refugees & forced migration, 8. Corruption, 9. Development, 10. Health & HIV/AIDS, 11. Education, 12. Racism & xenophobia, 13. Environment, 14. Media & freedom of expression, 15. Conflict & emergencies, 16. Internet & technology, 17. eNewsletters & mailing lists, 18. Fundraising & useful resources, 19. Courses, seminars, & workshops

    This newsletter is about sharing information. Submit your news to our Editor [email protected]. Read current and back issues online at




    The Kabissa-fahamu Newsletter has grown rapidly. Along with it, the services provided by Kabissa – space for change in Africa – have also grown. But what are these services? Since we continue to receive requests for information, we thought it might be useful for us to tell you a bit more about Kabissa.

    Kabissa is dedicated to strengthening the capacity of African non-profit organisations to use the full potential of the Internet in the interest of building civil society and democracy in Africa. We operate on the principles of inclusiveness and collaboration, and invite all organisations and initiatives that share our goals to join as members and partners.

    Access to the Internet in Africa has grown substantially over the past few years. According to a recent survey, at the end of 1996 only 11 countries had Internet access, but by November 2000 all 54 countries and territories had permanent connectivity and the presence of local full service dialup ISPs. The total number of computers permanently connected to the Internet in Africa (excluding South Africa) finally broke the 10,000 mark at the beginning of 1999 and in January 2000 it stood at almost 12,000, an increase of 20%. While the cost of establishing local e-mail accounts has fallen recently, the cost of website hosting, Internet domain names and similar services is frequently very high, and frequently out of reach of many non-profit organisations in Africa.

    Many of us working in the non-profit sector have been inundated with requests from African NGOs seeking assistance in setting up websites, training in the use of the internet, access to resources on the internet, training in proposal writing, management training, and help with establishment of electronic mailing lists. In our early work with International Alert and the World Organisation Against Torture, we have run workshops and provided technical assistance to human rights organisations to enable them to exploit the potentials of the Internet for their own purposes.

    Through this process we became aware of the difficulties such organisations had in establishing websites and accessing resources on the Internet. In response, we decided to invest our own efforts and resources in establishing an entity called "Kabissa" (meaning "complete" in Kiswahili). We set up an Internet server in order, initially, to provide free website and e-mail hosting for non-profit organisations in Africa. Now we are finding that Kabissa has filled other gaps in service, in particular in empowering African non-profits by enabling them to share essential information through this newsletter.

    Interest in the initiative has grown rapidly. Within a year, we had more than 250 user accounts on Kabissa, including 30 separate domain accounts. Our website now has thousands of pages, receives over 400,000 hits per month (averaging over 340 visits per day). We currently register five new members each week.

    Kabissa currently provides the following services, all of which are provided free to African non-profit organisations (except domain registration and hosting for which we make a modest charge):

    - Web space accounts (ftp)
    - E-mail mailbox accounts (pop3/imap4)
    - Automated mailing lists (majordomo)
    - Web-based access to website files hosted on Kabissa
    - Web-based access to any e-mail mailboxes
    - Web-based access to Kabissa mailing list administration
    - www4mail server enabling users to retrieve web pages via e-mail
    - Participation in the largest human-edited directory on the web (, providing access to more than 330,000 websites
    - Website promotion (, AfriPromote banner exchange, search engines)
    - Web-based domain availability check (whois)
    - Domain registration and hosting (low-cost)

    We have also developed "Best Practice" documentation designed to demystify the technology and enable African non-profit organisations to develop the confidence to control the resources that they access through Kabissa.

    In addition to providing access to the above services, Kabissa also established this electronic newsletter, designed to enable members and others to share up-to-date information about events, news, and resources available of relevance to the non-profit sector in Africa. The growth of the newsletter in terms of content, breadth and reach has been extraordinary. Within months of establishing it, the weekly mailing went to more than 400 subscribers. In December 2000, Kabissa and fahamu merged their respective newsletters, resulting in a subscriber base of more than 700. Today, the Kabissa-fahamu newsletter reaches 2,500 individuals in NGOs, international organisations and networks, funding agencies and foundations, governments, and the private sector. Free advertising space is provided for non-profits. Based on our research and excellent reader feedback, we are constantly innovating the contents of the newsletter, which now has nearly 20 printed pages and has 21 sections for categorizing the information.

    In addition to the Internet Services and the e-mail based Kabissa-fahamu Newsletter, we also maintain a database on our website for the purpose of organising and sharing information relevant for Africa.

    Information already in the database includes:

    - Member directory of African non-profit organisations, most of which are hosting websites on our Internet Server
    - Partner directory of organisations collaborating with Kabissa
    - Internet Domains hosted on Kabissa
    - Mailing List/eNewsletter directory
    - Software Resources

    We are working on "portalizing" the information and interfaces provided through the Kabissa website and the Kabissa-fahamu Newsletter. Users of the site will be able to log in to customize their own home page, as seen on many other portals. African non-profits eligible for free Internet accounts and mailing lists will be able to use the portal interface to manage their accounts. We will be able to administrate users, allocate access and posting privileges, and monitor and evaluate the usage of our website. These are standard features on portal websites these days.

    What sets Kabissa apart from other typical portals is that we intend to innovate in directions that enable African organisations to share their information using means and media relevant and appropriate for them. For this purpose we are gathering information about useful software that is freely available under "open source" licensing agreements.

    Our goal for the Kabissa database is to enable African organisations to take control of information-sharing opportunities provided by the web, e-mail, cdrom and print. All four media are tremendously important for Africa:

    - The web is ideal for collaborative maintenance and organising of information amongst organisations that have made the investment to be "information providers".
    - E-mail remains by far the most relevant Internet application, used far more than the Web or any other service. For Kabissa users, E-mail is and shall remain for some time the most efficient means for transmitting and receiving current information.
    - CDROM provides offline access to the "search and browse" capabilities usually reserved for the web. Thousands of pages of information can be shared in this way, along with large software programs and other files that otherwise would have to be downloaded from the Internet at prohibitive expense.
    - Print is a media that is too often overlooked in this age of sexy Internet applications. While the web is ideal for maintaining and organising information, when it comes to getting practical information, the most handy source remains a telephone book or some other printed publication.

    We are developing our database so that we can provide access to essential information through a portal website and CDROMs and print publications. At the same time, we have a view to enabling organisations and individuals in Africa to perform the same function for their community. This would require training, but it would also require new software to retrieve, organise and output relevant information using your own computer.

    All of our efforts are intended ultimately to contribute to strengthening the capacity of African organisations to carry out their important work. In this context, we are pleased to be involved in the Adilisha Project, established by Fahamu, which seeks to strengthen the campaigning, advocacy and organisational capacity of human rights organisations in southern Africa through the development of computer and internet based distance learning materials. Kabissa has been involved in providing support for the project’s information and communication technology work, including the development of appropriate databases, hosting and technical maintenance of the project’s websites and mailing lists. Kabissa also assists in sourcing information on human rights in Africa (disseminated through the Kabissa-fahamu Newsletter) and provides expert input, through the Adilisha Advisory Board, to the development of a CDROM-based training course on the 'Use of the Internet for Advocacy and Research'.

    As we are working with Adilisha and our other partners, so we also want to work with you. Join us to create an African platform for information sharing and collaboration using the Internet. If your organisation provides services in Africa that contribute to this end, we would love to hear from you.

    Organisations working in the African non-profit sector are eligible for Kabissa Membership. Kabissa Members are listed in our member directory, and are eligible for free standard Internet accounts on the Kabissa Internet server. This provides you with web space and mailboxes for your staff, and support for standard scripts such as forms (see FAQ). If you already have a website, you may choose to place a 'mirror' (or copy) of your website in your Kabissa account.

    Domain hosting is available on Kabissa at low cost. We can register domains for $70 (we recommend those ending in .org) and host them on Kabissa for a $35 setup fee and $60 annual hosting fee. You can also transfer your domain to Kabissa or host domains you wish to register independently. Hosted websites and mailboxes are linked directly with member Internet accounts.

    The Kabissa Frequently Asked Questions page is your "first port of call" for questions with Kabissa membership and making your start on the Internet. Section headings are:
    1. Communicating with colleagues within your country and abroad
    2. Accessing Information on the Internet
    3. The use of Internet in the African non-profit sector
    4. Kabissa Membership
    5. Using Kabissa Electronic Mail Accounts
    6. Using Kabissa to Make your Organisation’s Information Available
    7. Using your Kabissa Website
    8. Taking advantage of Kabissa Website features
    9. Promoting your Organisation on the Internet
    10. Setting up an Internet Domain Name for your Organisation
    11. Making payments to Kabissa

    Advocacy & campaigns

    Water & Health Advocacy

    A practical guide for World Water Day 2001


    Water is one of the earth's most precious and threatened resources. Health is one of each person's most precious resources. We need to protect and enhance them both.

    Web-banner: drop-the-case petition of MSF


    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) asks to support South Africa's efforts to make essential medicines more accessible to its people by signing a global petition by April 15. Under the following page you will find the example of banner to add to your web-site along with corresponding HTML code:

    Books & arts

    Never the Same Again: Zimbabwe's Growth Towards Democracy 1980 - 2000


    We needed a short survey of Zimbabwean political development which is accessible to a wide range of people and this book answers that need. Starting with the premise that genuine democracy depends on the growth of civil society structures, it shows how these were systematicly stifled by ZANU PF in the 1980's. Then, in the 1990's, in response to the effects of structural adjustment, they gradually emerged, with the trade unions leading the way. Demands for a new constitution by the umbrella National Constitutional Assembly awakened the people to the possibilities of protest. The result was ZANU PF's first defeat in the constitutional referendum in February 2000 and the stiff challenge put up by the opposition Movement for Democratic Change in the June parliamentary elections.
    We needed a short survey of Zimbabwean political development which is accessible to a wide range of people and this book answers that need. Starting with the premise that genuine democracy depends on the growth of civil society structures, it shows how these were systematicly stifled by ZANU PF in the 1980's. Then, in the 1990's, in response to the effects of structural adjustment, they gradually emerged, with the trade unions leading the way. Demands for a new constitution by the umbrella National Constitutional Assembly awakened the people to the possibilities of protest. The result was ZANU PF's first defeat in the constitutional referendum in February 2000 and the stiff challenge put up by the opposition Movement for Democratic Change in the June parliamentary elections.

    Never the Same Again: Zimbabwe's Growth Towards Democracy 1980 - 2000
    by Richard Saunders published by Edwina Spicer Productions Harare 2000

    Review by Mary Ndlovu, Legal Resources Foundation, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Full review:

    This book's hopeful title may appear over-optimistic to Zimbabweans currently despairing of further democratic development. In the six months since this book was written, the ZANU PF government has shown that its fits of violence are not mere episodes but a key tool that they intend to use to retain power. But even a cursory reading does show how far Zimbabwean political life has matured in the twenty years of independence. We have moved a long way from the belief that the simple "one man one vote" of nationalist politics would bring us prosperity and development. We have reached an understanding that prosperity depends on democracy and the building of democracy requires much more from civil society than voting. Furthermore, we have gone a long way toward achieving the organisation that will realise a far more participatory type of democracy.

    The book consists of three sections, each with a special theme, but roughly following chronological development. First the non-democratic tendencies of indpendent Zimbabwe in the 1980's are outlined, culminating in the 1987 surrender of the opposition PF ZAPU to the ruling ZANU PF and preparations for a one-party state. During this phase, we see the ruling party trying to monopolise and control all forms of public expression and civic organisation. The next part follows the gradual development of organised civil society from the late 1980's and its blossoming under the economic hardships of structural adjustment in the 1990's. Finally, in the third part, civil society coalesces at the end of the 90's in the creation of the National Constitutional Assembly to push for a new constitution. This bears fruit in the rejection of government's attempt to impose its own constitution, the emergence at last of a significant opposition party, the Movement for Democratic Change, based on more democratic ideals. . Th
    e catchy title refers to the impact the MDC had when it won more than 1/3 of the parliamentary seats in the June 2000 elections.

    Saunders' small book was written to accompany the film of the same title, produced by Edwina Spicer. But while the thread is the same, and many of the key quotations in the book are borrowed from the film, the story is told in a more comprehensive way than the film could do. And it stands on its own for reading by those who have never seen the film. The book is a tonic for a beleaguered democratic movement which sometimes seems to have lost its way. The past 18 months have thrown a great deal of light on the behaviour of ZANU PF since 1980, and it was a good time for a small book like this to put the whole of our post-independence experience into perspective. What we see is a continuing theme of brutal suppression of any opposing voice, whether of trade unionists in 1981 or ZAPU from 1982 to 1987, of food rioters in 1998 or journalists in 1999. The difference is that civil society has now developed to the point where it can resist and its voice continues to be heard. The message of the book is a posit
    ive one - we have reached a milestone, and we will not go back.

    "Never the Same Again" is particularly welcome in that it addresses all of us in a style which is easily readable even though the analysis is sophisticated. The presentation, too, makes the book accessible to the majority of educated people - with headings and subheadings for easy reference, photographs, quotations from some of the players on the stage, and special topics and statistics presented in boxes.

    Together with the film this book is not just of academic interest to historians and political scientisit. They were developed together as tools of civic education, and certainly they are destined to go a long way in helping Zimbabweans to understand the nature of participatory democracy, make sense of the events of the past two decades, and chart their way forward.

    Given the usefulness ot this book in helping to move us forward on our path to democracy, it is unfortunate that the production is not of better quality. The sepia shade of print makes some of the photographs difficult to decipher. And for a book that cries out to be handed from reader to reader, one would have wanted a binding that holds the book together for more than one reading. There are also numerous typographical and editing errors. Where one knows the events the meaning is clear, but for those who do not, it can be very confusing.

    Saunders covers a wide range of events, and deals with various civic groups as they emerged out from under the control of ZANU PF. While everything cannot be tackled in one slender volume, it would have been interesting to read a little more about the undemocratic tendencies within ZANU PF itself, and the struggle of some members to resist autocracy within the party. It may yet be that we are saved from further tyranny by forces within ZANU PF .

    The tactics used by ZANU PF to quash any outside challengers could also have been explored more. Before the emergence of the NCA and the MDC at the end of the 90's, the opposition is portrayed as weak and lacking in direction, therefore still-born; little is said about the infanticide committed by ZANU PF using the Central Intelligence Organisation to infiltrate and create splits in all emerging opposition parties. It would have been interesting to see an explanation of why this didn't succeed with MDC.

    However, that would doubtless be asking too much. The book is primarily narrative, within an analytic framework. It is inspiring, readable, and hopefully an instrument for the further development of Zimbabwean democracy.

    Some books help us to understand our history, others help to influence the direction it takes. This small and unassuming volume has the potential to do both.

    Letters & Opinions



    After your newsletter N° 11, we failed to open the other numbers we received, I don't know why. Could you please send me again.

    Our response: see

    From Hendrei Pirentz Mphathiwa


    God only knows where you got my e-mail address..but I am glad you did. I worked for Botswana Council of Nongovernmental Organisations once and since then I love working with NGOs. Though I am currently residing in London, I am still in close contact with NGOs in Southern Africa.

    Tuija Partonen, GASPP Administrative officer


    Thank you for sending this newsletter to us. We appreciate it greatly.

    Women & gender

    Countries With Smaller Gender Gaps Have Less Poverty and Faster Growth


    Countries that promote women's rights and increase their access to resources and schooling have lower poverty rates, faster economic growth and less corruption than countries that do not, says a recently published World Bank report, EnGendering Development - Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources and Voice.
    Countries with smaller gaps between women and men in areas such as
    education, employment, and property rights not only have lower child
    malnutrition and mortality, they also have more transparent business and
    government and faster economic growth which in turn helps to further narrow
    the gender gap.

    "Increasing gender equality is central to the idea of development as
    freedom, of expanding the choices and control that people have over their
    lives," says Nicholas Stern, World Bank Chief Economist and Senior Vice
    President for Development Economics. "The evidence in this report shows that
    education, health, productivity, credit and governance work better when
    women are involved."

    Released to coincide with International Women's Day, Thursday, March 8,
    EnGendering Development is the most extensive study yet of the links between
    gender and economic progress in developing countries. The report's
    recommendations reflect extensive research and engagement with women's
    groups, as well as a comprehensive on-line consultation of the draft, and a
    discussion of the research findings at last year's UN Special Session of the
    General Assembly on Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the 21st

    "Gender disparities are very closely associated with poverty," says
    Elizabeth King, co-author of the report. "The gap between men and women in
    such things as health and education is greater in poor countries than in
    rich countries, and within countries it is greatest among the poor.
    Experiences from cross-country analysis and case studies show that economic
    development and institutional change are both necessary to improve the
    status of women."

    Gender inequality hurts all members of society, not just girls and women.
    The report recommends that societies with high levels of gender inequality
    adopt specific measures to improve the status of girls and women. Examples
    include ensuring equal rights to land and other property, and designing
    infrastructure and services, such as water, transportation, education,
    health, and credit, to better meet women's needs. Other steps include
    eliminating gender bias in the workplace and increasing women's
    participation in politics.

    "Societies that discriminate on the basis of gender pay a significant
    price - in greater poverty, slower economic growth, weaker governance, and a
    lower quality of life," says Andrew Mason, co-author of the report.
    "Although income growth and economic development are good for gender
    equality in the long run, growth alone cannot deliver the desired results.
    Societies progress more rapidly if they also adopt specific measures to
    narrow gender gaps."

    According to the report, countries that reduce the gender gap in access to
    resources and opportunities achieve more rapid economic growth. In Africa,
    for example, improving rural women's access to productive resources
    including education, land, and fertilizer could increase agricultural
    productivity by as much as one-fifth.

    Cross-country studies suggest that if the Middle East and North Africa,
    South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa had been as successful as East Asia in
    narrowing the gender gap in education during 1960-1990, GNP per capita in
    those regions would have grown by 0.5 and 0.9 percentage points higher per
    year, substantial increases over actual growth rates.

    The report also confirms that girls and women have made significant progress
    in recent decades. For example, over the past 25 years girls' primary school
    enrollment rates doubled in the Middle East, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan
    Africa. In the past half century, women's life expectancy has increased by
    15-20 years in developing countries, to the point that in the 1990s, for the
    first time, women in South Asia began living longer than men.

    Despite this progress, women continue to have less control than men over
    important resources. In South Asia, women have only about half as many years
    of education as men, and female secondary school enrollment rates are only
    two-thirds of male rates. Control of land and of other forms of capital is
    also highly unequal. In Latin America most female household heads in rural
    areas are either landless or own very small, fragmented holdings. The same
    is true in Sub-Saharan Africa, where women are the major producers of food
    crops. Throughout the developing world, female-managed enterprises are often
    undercapitalized, having less access to credit and using fewer inputs and
    machinery than male-managed enterprises.

    Beyond the direct effects on women's welfare and their ability to generate
    income, these factors reduce women's power to allocate family resources and
    to shape such basic family decisions as how many children to have. This lack
    of power to influence family resource allocations has a negative impact on
    children's well being. Lack of control of resources also means that women
    are made more vulnerable in the face of personal or family crises.

    In politics, women continue to be vastly underrepresented in national and
    sub-national assemblies, accounting for less than 10 percent of the seats in
    parliament in all but a handful of countries. In Eastern Europe, female
    representation has fallen from 25 to 7 percent since the beginning of the
    economic and political transition.

    Countries that reduce gender inequality can reap significant rewards. Some
    benefits, such as falling infant and child mortality, improved nutrition,
    and lower fertility rates, are already well known. The report demonstrates
    how the positive impacts of reducing gender gaps also include lower AIDS
    prevalence, less corruption, higher economic productivity, and faster
    growth, outcomes that have not been traditionally linked to gender equality.
    Countries where women have greater rights and participate more in public
    life tend to have cleaner business and government. The report notes that
    several studies have found that as the influence of women in public life
    grows, the level of corruption declines. This is true even when comparing
    countries with the same civil liberties, education, legal institutions, and
    income levels.

    Girls Adapt To The New World Of Work While Boys Still Lag Behind


    While girls are focusing more on their futures and are prepared to study
    hard, boys are still adopting anti-work 'laddish' attitudes which hold back
    their educational development, according to new ESRC-funded research.
    FOR RELEASE: 13 MARCH 2001 AT 00:01 ET US
    Economic & Social Research Council

    Girls adapt to the new world of work while boys still lag behind

    While girls are focusing more on their futures and are prepared to study
    hard, boys are still adopting anti-work 'laddish' attitudes which hold back
    their educational development, according to new ESRC-funded research.

    The research, from the University of Greenwich's School of Post Compulsory
    Education and Training, involved interviews with 14-year-old to 16-year-old
    students at three London comprehensive schools. During the research,
    interviews were conducted with 50 boys and 50 girls, and 12 different
    classes were observed.

    "Girls have recognised that gender discrimination exists in the workplace
    and are motivated to perform well at school to equip themselves with the
    qualifications they deem necessary for accessing a good job and for
    competing effectively with men," says Dr Becky Francis, the author of the

    Boys also recognise the need for good qualifications but feel that they will
    be ostracised by their friends or ridiculed if they are seen to be too

    "Boys continue to adopt loud and disruptive behaviour to gain status among
    their peers at the expense of their academic achievement," says Dr Francis.

    The researchers found that:

    *girls' view of femininity has changed markedly since the 1980s, making them
    more ambitious about future careers

    *boys' view of masculine behaviour has tended to remain the same

    *'laddish' behaviour still tends to dominate the classroom and impedes all
    pupils' learning

    *teachers often endorse boys' 'laddish' behaviour even though it may lead to

    Many boys adopted homophobic, misogynist and violent attitudes to assert
    their masculinity and appear 'normal'. This behaviour required disciplinary
    attention from teachers and reduced the time teachers spent teaching the
    rest of the class. In spite of this, 'laddish' behaviour and the need to
    'have a laugh' meant that these boys often provided entertainment for the
    class as a whole. Many girls and some teachers seemed to be amused by such
    behaviour and even found such boys appealing or attractive. But the
    behaviour which made the boys a social success in the classroom had a
    negative effect on their own, and others', academic achievements.

    "Girls seem to have become far more ambitious and see their future work in
    terms of a career rather a stop-gap before marriage or a source of income
    after marriage," says Dr Francis. "They are also prepared to work hard to
    get the qualifications to succeed in a career," she adds. "In contrast, many
    boys appear to be trapped in a way of behaving which gets them short term
    attention in the classroom, but which does not equip them for the workplace
    and fails them in the long run."

    For more information, contact Dr Becky Francis. She is now at the University
    of North London. Tel: 0207-753-5055 Or, Lilian El-Doufani or Lesley Lilley
    in ESRC External Relations. Tel: 01793-413032

    Women Reject Museveni Electoral College System


    Women rights activists have protested against President Yoweri Museveni's
    decision to ask Parliament to restore the electoral college system for
    electing district women MPs.

    "We strongly support universal adult suffrage and the secret ballot as modes
    of electing district women representatives. We therefore object to the
    presidential veto against this (electoral colleges) and call upon MPs to re-
    affirm the position they adopted in the Parliamentary Elections Bill 2000,"
    the Coalition for Political Accountability to Women (COPAW) said yesterday.
    New Vision.

    Human rights

    Award for Human Rights Defenders


    The World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) - a member of the Martin Ennals Foundation - is pleased to announce that: Peace Brigades International wins 2001 Martin Ennals Award for Human Rights Defenders.
    Date: 22 March 2001 PRESS RELEASE Embargo: 16h GMT

    The World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) - a member of the Martin Ennals Foundation - is pleased to announce that:

    Peace Brigades International wins 2001 Martin Ennals Award for Human Rights Defenders

    The international Martin Ennals Award for Human Rights Defenders has been awarded to Peace Brigades International (PBI) for its work to provide unarmed protection to human rights defenders under threat. The international recognition received by PBI through the Award helps to exert pressure on the perpetrators of human rights abuses and to provide a higher level of protection for both human rights defenders and PBI volunteers.

    PBI Colombia Project, established in 1994, now has 35 volunteers accompanying 20 Colombian human rights organisations and displaced communities in Bogotá, Medellín, Barrancabermeja and Turbo. Escalating violence has been characterised by blatant disregard for human rights and international humanitarian law. Human rights defenders have been subject to a systematic campaign of intimidation, harassment and attacks which has cost some their lives; many defenders live in constant fear for their physical safety. Without exaggerating, it may be said that in some areas of Colombia, human rights organisations would have been virtually wiped out were it not for PBI’s presence. " The death sentences against each and every one of us have not been carried out because we are not alone, we have the accompaniment of Peace Brigades International," states a Colombian human rights defender.

    In recent weeks, PBI volunteers in Colombia have been warned that they are now considered a “military objective” by the paramilitary United Self-defence Force of Colombia (AUC).

    “PBI’s volunteers literally embody in themselves the expression of international concern and support for human rights defenders on the front line,” said Hans Thoolen, Chair of the Martin Ennals Foundation. “Their courage and selflessness express the highest ideals in the defence of human rights. During the international year of volunteers, those who calmly and knowingly put their lives at risk to protect others should be recognized more than ever”.

    PBI, founded in 1981, organises international teams of volunteers to work with human rights organisations committed to non-violent social change. In the 1980s PBI pioneered protective accompaniment in Guatemala. Volunteers accompany threatened individuals and communities up to 24 hours a day. To ensure the effectiveness of accompaniment PBI maintains relations with military and government officials, the diplomatic corps, international NGOs and UN representatives. This provides assurance to local activists that any actions against them will attract an immediate international response. This year PBI marks 20 years of having effectively employed these methods in Guatemala, El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Colombia, Haiti, North America and Indonesia/East Timor.

    The ceremony, organised in the framework of the North-South Media Festival, will take place in Geneva on Thursday, 29 March 2001, at the Télévision Suisse Romande studio, at 17.30 (local time), as the climax of an all-day program of films and discussions about human rights defenders. This year’s ceremony will be combined with the publication of the annual report of the Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders (a joint programme of FIDH and OMCT), which includes over 350 cases of repression of defenders in 52 countries and which highlights attacks by governments against freedom of association.

    Background to the MEA

    The Martin Ennals Award for Human Rights Defenders (MEA) was created in 1993 and is granted annually to an individual or an organization who has displayed exceptional courage in combatting human rights violations. The award of 20,000 Swiss Francs is given to further the work of human rights activists.

    The Martin Ennals Foundation represents a unique collaboration among nine of the world’s leading non-governmental human rights organizations: Amnesty International, the International Commission of Jurists, Human Rights Watch, International Alert, Diakonia Human Rights Desk, Defence for Children International, World Organisation Against Torture, the International Federation of Human Rights Leagues and HURIDOCS.

    Martin Ennals (1927-1991) was instrumental to the development of modern human rights movement. A fiercely devoted activist, he creatively pursued ideas ahead of his time as the first Secretary-General of Amnesty International and the driving force behind the establishment of ten other organisations. His deep desire was to see more cooperation and solidarity among NGOs.

    Past recipients of the Martin Ennals Award are: 2000, Immaculée Birhaheka (DRC); 1999, Natasa Kandic (Serbia); 1998, Dr. Eyad Rajab El Sarraj (Palestine); 1997, Samuel Ruiz Garcia (Mexico); 1996, Clement Nwankwo (Nigeria); 1995, Asma Jahangir (Pakistan); 1994, Harry Wu (China).

    To arrange for interviews or attendance at the ceremony, the media should contact Laura Fähndrich of the Martin Ennals Foundation in Geneva, Switzerland, on + 41 22 755 52 52, e-mail [email protected]
    For further information on the Martin Ennals Award visit
    For further information on Peace Brigades International visit



    The following contains a bibliography on international human rights and criminal law, including the ICC and issues related to the ratification and implementation, that could be useful to academics, delegations, and groups working in these fields. Please also note that the Coalition website has a link to an extensive ICC bibliography.
    Copyright 2001 International Enforcement Law Reporter

    International Enforcement Law Reporter

    April, 2001


    LENGTH: 264 words

    HEADLINE: A. Books

    BYLINE: By Bruce Zagaris

    1. Banking and Money Laundering
    G. Stessens , Money Laundering. A New International Law Enforcement Model ,
    Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law, Cambridge
    University Press (2000).
    2. Law of War
    Aleksandar Fatic, Reconciliation via the War Crimes Tribunal (2000).
    J.R.W.D. Jones, The Practice of the International Criminal Tribunals for
    the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, 2 nd ed. Transnational publishers ( 2000).
    Paul J. Magnarella, Justice in Africa: Rwanda's Genocide, Its Courts and
    the UN Criminal Tribunal (2000).
    3. Human Rights and Protection of Victims
    The Future of UN Human Rights Treaty Monitoring (2000).
    P.R. Beaumont and P.E. Mcleavy, The Hague Convention on International Child
    Abduction (1999).
    4. International Criminal Court
    International Criminal Court: Ratification and National Implementing
    Legislation , Int'l Review of Penal Law (2000).
    5. Aggression
    N. Chomsky, Rogue States; the Rule of Force in World Affairs , South End
    Press (2000).
    6. Genocide
    Protection Against Genocide; Mission Impossible ? Praeger (2000).
    H.J. De Nike et al, Genocide In CaMbodia; Documents from the Trial of Pol
    Pot and Ieng Sary , U. of Pennsylvania Press (2000).
    7. Extradition
    The Pinochet Case: A Legal and Constitutional Analysis (2000).
    8. Transnational Corruption
    E. Buscaglia, Judicial Corruption in Developing Countries; Its Causes and
    Economic Consequences . Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace,
    Stanford Univ., (1999 ).
    9. Comparative
    Criminal Code of the Russian Federation , 2d. Ed (1998).

    HEADLINE: B. Articles

    BYLINE: BY Bruce Zagaris

    1. Adjective Enforcement
    A.I. Sapone, Children as Pawns in their Parents' Fight for Control: The
    Failure of the United States to Protect against International Child
    Abduction , 21 Women's Rts. L. Rep . 129-38 (2000).
    Anne-Marie Slaugher, Judicial Globalization , 40 Va. J. Int'l L . 1103-24
    2. Banking, Confidentiality, and Money Laundering
    T. Hibbert, Dishonesty and Knowledge of Accessories and Recipients , 15 J.
    Int'l Banking L . 138-44 (2000).
    Bruce Zagaris and Benjamin Hinceman, Uncle Sam Reaches Out: Current United
    States Money Laundering Law , 1 Financ. Crime Rev . 37-44 (2000).
    3. Evidence Gathering
    Robert J. Currie, Human Rights and International Mutual Legal Assistance:
    Resolving the Tension , 11 Crim. Law Forum 143-181 (2000).
    Bruce Zagaris, U.S. Extends Its Reach for Evidence , 15 Crim. Justice 4
    (ABA Sec. of Crim. Just. 2001).

    4. Extradition
    P. Alexandropoulos, Enforceability of Executive-Congressional Agreements in
    Lieu of an Article III Treaty for Purposes of Extradition: Elizaphan
    Ntakirutimana v. Janet Reno [184 F.3d 419 (5 th Cir. 19999), 45 Vill. L.
    Rev . 107-36 (2000).
    M. Byers, The Law and Politics of the Pinochet [R. v. Bow Street
    Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate, ex parte Pinochet (No. 3) [1999] 2 All
    E.R. 97] Case, 10 Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 514-51 (2000).
    V.L. Marrero, Evolution of British Jurisprudence in the Extradition of
    General Augusto Pinochet: Application of International Human Rights Treaty
    Trumps Sovereign Immunity , 8 Int'l L. & Prac . 119-37 (1999).
    A.D. Mitchell, Leave Your Hat on ? Head of State Immunity and Pinochet [R.
    v. Bow Street Metro. Stipendiary Magistrate, ex parte Pinochet (No. 1.);
    [1998] 4 All ER 897, 25 Monash U.L. Rev . 225-56 (1999).
    S.R. Nicolas, Negotiating in the Shadow of Outlaws: A Problem-Solving
    Paradigm for Unconventional Opponents , 9 J. Transat'l L. & Pol'y 385-418
    M.S. Podell, Removing Blinders from the Judiciary: In re Artt, Brennan,
    Kirby [158 F.3d 462 (9 th Cir. 1997) As An Evolutionary Step in the United
    States'96United Kingdom Extradition Scheme , 23 B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev.
    263-84 (2000).

    Y. Zilbershats, Extraditing Israeli Citizens to the United
    States'96Extradition and Citizenship Dilemmas , 21 Mich. J. Int'l 297-326

    5. Extraterritoriality and Jurisdiction
    P. Arnell, Criminal Jurisdiction in International Law , 2000 Jurid. Rev.
    179-89 (2000).
    M.D. Hoffer, A Fistful of Dollars: "Operation Casablanca" and the Impact of
    Extraterritorial Enforcement of United States Money Laundering Law , 28 Ga.
    J. Int'l & Comp. L . 293-318 (2000).
    K.C. Priest-Hamilton, Who Really Should Have Exercised Jurisdiction over
    the Military Pilots Implicated in the 1998 Italy Gondola Accident ? 65 J.
    Air L. & Com . 605-35 (2000).
    Luc Reydams, Universal Criminal Jurisdiction: The Belgian State of Affairs
    , 11 Crim. L. Forum 183-216 (2000).

    6. Constitutional and Human Rights
    W.J. Aceves, Individual Rights Under Vienna Convention on Consular
    Relations'96Duty to Inform Detained Foreign nationals of Right to Seek
    Consular Assistance'96Protections against Arbitrary Deprivation of
    Life'96Advisory Jurisdiction of Inter-American Court of Human Rights , 94
    Am. J. Int'l L. 555-62 (2000).
    B. Alexander, Convention Against Torture: A Viable Alternative Legal Remedy
    for Domestic Violence Victims , 15 Am. U. Int'l L. Rev . 895-939 (3000).
    Dianne Marie Amann, Harmonic Convergence? Constitutional Criminal Procedure
    in an International Context , 75 Indiana L.J. 810-873 (2000).
    I. Bantekas and P. Hodgkinson, Capital Punishment at the United Nations:
    Recent Developments , 11 Crim. L.F. 23-34 (2000).
    M.S. Blackman, United States v. Balsys [118 S. Ct. 2218 (1998): Setting a
    Boundary for the Self-Incrimination Clause , 53 Okla. L. Rev . 127-41
    J.E. Henry, Overcoming Federalism in Internationalized Death Penalty Cases
    , 35 Tex. Int'l L.J. 459-83 (2000).
    C. Little, Civil Forfeiture and the Excessive Fines Clause: Does Bajakajian
    [United States v. Bajakaijan, 118 S. Ctr. 2028 (1998)] Provide False Hope
    for Drug-Related Offenders ? 11 U. Fla. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 203-24 (2000).
    J. Mertus, Reconsidering the Legality of Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons
    from Kosovo , 31 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1743-87 (May 2000).
    C.S. O'Driscoll, The Execution of Foreign Nations in Arizona: Violations of
    the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations , 32 Ariz. St. L.J. 323-43
    D.A.C. Simmons, Conflicts of Law and Policy in the Caribbean'96Human Rights
    and the Enforcement of the Death Penalty'96Between a Rock and a Hard Place
    , 9 J. Transnat'l L. & Pol'y 263-87 (2000).

    7. Narcotics
    J.E. Kramek, Bilateral Maritime Counter-Drug and Immigrant Interdiction
    Agreements: Is This the World of the Future , 31 U. Miami Inter-Am. L. Rev
    . 121-161 (2000).
    K. Raustiala, Law, Liberalization & International Narcotics Trafficking ,
    32 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol. 89-145 (1999).
    M. Williams, Caribbean Shiprider Agreements: Sunk by Banana Trade War ? 31
    U. Miami Inter-Am. L. Rev . 163-95 (2000).

    8. Terrorism
    Y. Alexander, Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century: Threats and Responses,
    12 DePaul Bus. L.J. 59-65 (19999-2000).
    M.C. Bassiouni, Assessing "Terrorism" into the New Millennium , 12 DePaul
    Bus. L.J. 1-20 (1999-2000).
    R. Clarke, Threats to U.S. National Security: Proposed Partnership
    Indicatives Towards Preventing Cyber Terrorist Attacks , 12 DePaul Bus.L.J.
    22-42 (1999-2000).
    J.W. Dellapenna, Civil Remedies for International Terrorism , 12 DePaul
    Bus. L.J. 169-289 (1999-2000).
    G. Rappe, The Role of Insurance in the Battle Against Terrorism , 12 DePaul
    Bus. L.J. 351-80 (1999-2000).
    M. Sheehan, International Terrorism: Trends and Responses , 12 DePaul Bus.
    L.J. 45-58 (1999-2000).
    J. Tetzlaff, Risk Management in a Dangerous World: Practical Approaches ,
    12 DePaul Bus. L.J. 291-328 (1999-2000).

    9. Law of War
    I. Arias, Humanitarian Intervention: Could the Security Council Kill the
    United States ? 23 Fordham Int'l L.J. 1005-27 (2000).
    Michael Bohlander, Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadi '83: Waiting to Exhale, 11
    Crim. Law Forum 217-48 (2000).
    B.S. Brown, Humanitarian Intervention at a Crossroads, 5 Wm. & Mary L. Rev
    . 1683-741 (2000).
    W.G. Eckhardt, My Lai: An American Tragedy , 68 UMKC L. Rev . 671-703 (2000).
    C.I. Farid, A Primer on Citizenship Revocation for WWII Collaboration: the
    1998-1999 Federal Court Term , 38 Atla. L. Rev . 415-57 (2000).
    B.A. Fisher, Japan's Postwar Compensation Litigation [Japan, U.S. and World
    War II: the Search for Justice. Symposium ], 22 Whittier L. Rev . 35-46
    G. Ginsbergs, Light Shed on the Story of Wehrmacht Generals in Soviet
    Captivity , 11 Crim. L.F. 101-20 (2000).
    L.M. Kaye, A Quick Glance at the Schiele Paintings , 10 DePaul LCA J. Art &
    Ent. L . 11-26 (1999).
    H.T. King, Jr., Robert Jackson's Vision for Justice and Other Reflections
    of a Nuremberg Prosecutor , 88 Geo. L.J. 2421-38 (Aug. 2000).
    M. Minow, Between Intimates and Between Nations: Can Law Stop the Violence?
    50 Case W. Res. L. Rev . 85168 (2000).
    M.M. Penrose, Spandau Revisited: The Question of Detention for
    International War Crimes , 16 N.Y.L. Sch. J. Hum. Rts. 553-91 (2000).
    H.H. Pewrritt, Jr., Policing International Peace and Security:
    International Police Forces , 17 Wis. Int'l L.J. 281-324 (1999).
    W. Rasch, A Just War? Or Just a War ?: Schmitt, Habermas, and the
    Cosmopolitan Orthodoxy , 21 Cardozo L. Rev. 1665-84 (2000).
    J. Schultz, The Substance of the Crime Was a State of Mind"'96How a
    Mainstream, Middle Class Jury Came to War with Itself , 68 UMKC L. Rev.
    637-70 (2000).
    B. Sneiderman, Holocaust Bashing: the Profaning of History, 26 Man. L.J.
    319-34 (1999).
    S. Wheatley, The NATO Action Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia:
    Humanitarian intervention in the Post-Cold War Era , 50 N. Ir. Legal Q.
    478-514 (1999).
    J.C. Yoo, Kosovo, War Powers, and the Multilateral Future , 138 U. Pa. l.
    Rev . 1673-731 (2000).

    10. Genocide
    M. Flynn, Genocide: It's a Crime Everywhere, But Not in Australia , 29 U.W.
    Austl. L. Rev . 59-78 (2000).
    S. Rumney, The Khmer Rouge on Trial: Law, Genocide and Impunity , 4
    Contemp. Issues L . 169-87 (1999).
    A.D. Mitchell, Genocide, Human Rights Implementation and the Relationship
    Between International and Domestic Law: Nulyarimma v. Thompson [1999] 165
    A.L.R. 621], 24 Melb. U. L. Rev . 15-49 (2000).
    W.A. Schabas, International Criminal Tribunal for
    Rwanda'96Genocide'96Length of Detention Pending Indictment and Formal
    Appearance Before Tribunal'96Delay in Informing Defendant of Charges
    '96Suspension of Proceedings as Remedy for Abuse of Procedure by
    Prosecutor'96Review of Prior DecisionAppeals Chamber, 94 Am. J. Int'l L .
    563-71 (2000).

    11. Comparative Criminal Law
    C. Elliott, The French Law of Intent and Its Influence on the Development
    of International Criminal Law , 11 Crim. L.F. 35-46 (2000).
    E. Grande, Italian Criminal Justice: Borrowing and Resistance , 28 Am. J.
    Comp. L. 227-59 (2000).
    B.A. Poindexter, The War on Crime Increases the Time: Sentencing Policies
    in the United States and South Africa , 22 Loy. L.A. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev
    . 375-302 (2000).
    S. Sebba, Victims' Rights and Legal Strategies: Israel as a Case Study , 11
    Crim. L.R. 47-100 (2000).

    12. International Criminal Court
    The International Criminal Court: Symposium Issue , 8 J. Int'l L. & Prac .
    1-271 (1999).
    J.R. Bolton, K. Roth, Toward an International Criminal Court? A Debate, 14
    Emory Int'l Rev . 159-97 (2000).
    L.S. Bickley, U.S. Resistance to the International Criminal Court: Is the
    Sword Mightier than the Law , 14 Emory Int'l L. Rev . 159-97 (2000).
    G.M. Danilenko, The Statute of the International Criminal Court and Third
    States, 21 Mich. J. Int'l L. 445-94 (2000).
    G.M. Dawson, Defining Substantive Crimes Within the Subject Matter
    Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court: What Is the Crime of
    Aggression , 19 N.Y.L. Sch. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 413-52 (2000).
    M.E. Eichelman, International Criminal Jurisdiction Issues for the United
    States Military , 2000 Army Law. 23-32 (2000).
    M.J. Kelly, Case Studies "Ripe" for the International Criminal Court:
    Practical Applications for the Pinochet, Ocalan, and Libyan Bomber Trials ,
    8 J. Int'l L. & Prac . 21-45 (1999).
    R. Lee, W.K. Lietzau, G.P. Fletcher, R. Dicker, P.R. Dubinsky, The
    International Criminal Court: Contemporary Perspectives and Prospects for
    Ratification, 16 N.Y.L. Sch. J. Hum Rts. 505-52 (2000).
    M.K. Marler, The International Criminal Court: Assessing the Jurisdictional
    Loopholes in the Rome Statute , 49 Duke L.J. 825-53 (1999).
    J.L. Talbee, A Call to Arms Declined: the United States and the
    International Criminal Court , 14 Emory Int'l L. Rev. 105-57 (2000 ).
    J.D. Van der Vyver, Personal and Territorial jurisdiction of the
    International Criminal Court , 14 Emory Int'l L. Rev. 1-103 (2000).
    W.F. Wright, Limitations on the Prosecution of International Terrorists by
    the International Criminal Court, 8 J. Int'l L. Prac . 139-49 (1999).
    Y.S. Kim, The Preconditions to the Exercise of the Jurisdiction of the
    International Criminal Court: With Focus on Article 12 of the Rome Statute
    , 8 J. Int'l L. & Prac . 47-90 (1999).

    13. Organized Crime
    A.S. Kanter, S.P. Boylan, Introduction [Symposium on Prosecuting
    Transnational Crimes: Cross-Cultural Insights for the Former Soviet Union
    ], 27 Syracuse J. Int'l L. & Com . 1-4 (2000).
    I. Talleyrand, Military Prostitution: How the Authorities Worldwide Aid and
    Abet International Trafficking in Women, 27 Syracuse J. Int'l L. & Com.
    151-76 (2000).

    14. Transnational Corruption
    A. Posadas, Combating Corruption under International Law , 10 Duke J. Comp.
    & Int'l L. 345-414 (2000).

    15. Anti-Trust
    I.H. Jung , A Comparative Study on the Question of Extraterritorial
    Application of the Competition Law , 18 Dick. J. Int'l L. 305-41 (2000).
    16. Economic Sanctions
    C. Breckinridge, Sanction First, Ask Questions Later: The Shortsighted
    Treatment of Iran under the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996, 88 Geo.
    L.J. 2439-71 (2000).
    B. T. Gorman, The Massachusetts Burma Law-The First Circuit's Decision to
    Stem the Tide of Increasing Sub-National Actor Participation in the Field
    of Foreign Relations in National Foreign Trade Council v. Natsios [181 F.3d
    38 (lst Cir. 1999), 45 Vill. L. Rev. 137-67 (2000).
    A. Packer, Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia . [India, Pakistan], 38
    Colum. J. Transnat'l L . 631-67 (2000).
    P.J. Thurston, National Foreign Trade Council v. Natsios [181 F.3d 38 (1 st
    Cir. 1999)] and the Foreign Relations Effects Test: Searching for a Viable
    Approach, 2000 B.Y.U. L. Rev . 749-800 (2000).

    17. Production, Possession, Trafficking, and Use of Arms and Weapons
    U.A. Cipolat, The New Chemical Weapons Convention and Export Controls:
    Towards Greater Multilateralism , 21 Mich. J. Int'l L . 393-444 (2000).
    B. Kellman, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in Deterring Chemical and
    Biological Weapons Attacks: National and Non-National Threats , 31 Supp.
    Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 619-30 (1999).
    L.C. Klotz, Means for Protecting U.S. Industry within an Effective
    Compliance Regime for the Biological Weapons Convention , 12 DePaul Bus. L.
    J. 329-50 (1999)
    M. Lacey, Self-Defense or Self-Denial: The Proliferation of Weapons of Mass
    Destruction , 10 Ind. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 293-315 (2000).
    P.A. Hemesath, Who's Got the Button? Nuclear War Powers Uncertainty in the
    Post-Cold War Era , 88 Geo. L.J. 2473-503 (2000).
    C. Horner, Nuclear Arms Control, Non-Proliferation and Disarmament in the
    Post-Cold War Security Environment: Keynote Address , 31 Supp. Case W. Res.
    J. Int'l L . 671-79 (1999).
    V. Lalla, The Effectiveness of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty on Nuclear
    Weapons Proliferation: A Review of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaties and
    the Impact of the Indian and Pakistani Nuclear Tests on the
    Non-Proliferation Regime , 8 Cardozo J. Int'l & Comp. L . 103-37 (2000).
    P. Mason, The NATO Alliance, No First use, and Nuclear Non-Proliferation ,
    21 Supp,. Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 633-45 (1999).
    P. Mason,P. Carvalho-Soto, T.E. Graham, Nuclear Arms Control and
    Disarmament in the 21 st Century: Prospects and Proposals [ Panel
    Discussion], 31 Supp. Case W. Res. J. Int'l L . 597-704 (1999).
    M.L. McConnell, Nuclear Weapons, the ICJ and the Limits of Permissible
    Violence: the SS Lotus Rises Once Again , 55 Advoc. (B.C.) 365-72 (My.
    J. Mendelsohn, B. Kellman, History and Evaluation of Nuclear Weapons [Panel
    Discussion ], 31 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 607-30 (1999).
    A. Van Lear, Loud Talk About a Quite Issue: the International Atomic Energy
    Agency's Struggle to Maintain the Confidentiality of Information Gained in
    Nuclear Facility Inspections , 28 Ga. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 349-79 (20000).
    18. Export Control
    G. Kennedy, Codemakers, Codebreakers and Rulemakers: Dilemmas in Current
    Encryption Policies, 16 Computer L. & Secur. Rep. 240-7 (Jl/Ag. 2000).
    19. Administration of Justice
    F.M. Lorenz, The Rule of Law in Kosovo: Problems and Prospects, 11 Crim.
    Law Forum 127-42 (2000).


    HEADLINE: C. Documents

    1. Extradition
    United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit: Cheung v. United
    States , 39 I.L.M. 1246 (2000).
    2. Human Rights
    European Court of Human Rights (ECHR): Averill v. United Kingdom , 39
    I.L.M. 1084 (2000)
    [The case adjudicates access to counsel and adverse inference from a
    suspects silence when questioned by police under the British Prevention of
    Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act 1989].
    United States Supreme Court: Crosby v. National Foreign Trade Council , 39
    I.L.M. 1234 (2000).
    3. Narcotics
    U.S. General Accounting Office, Rug Control: International Counterdrug
    Sites Being Developed, GAO-01-63BR, Dec. 20, 2000 (33 pp.)
    4. Terrorism
    International Court of Justice (ICJ): Case Concerning the Aerial Incident
    of 10 August 1999 (Pakistan v. India), 39 I.L.M. 1116 (2000).
    U.S. General Accounting Office, Combating Terrorism: Federal Response Teams
    Provide Varied Capabilities: Opportunities Remain to Improve Coordination,
    GAO-01-14, Nov. 30, 2001 (77 pp.).

    5. Law of War
    International Court of Justice (ICJ): Case Concerning Armed Activities on
    the territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda ),
    Order on Request for Indication of Provisional Measures, 39 I.L.M. 1100
    International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY): Final
    Report to the Prosecutor by the Committee Established to Review the NATO
    Bombing Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 39 I.L.M. 1257
    International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) (Appeals
    Chamber): Prosecutor v. Tadi '83 (Judgment in Sentencing Appeals) 39 I.L.M.
    635 (2000).
    International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR): (Appeals Chamber):
    Barayagwiza v. Prosecutor , (Decision on Prosecutor's Request for Review or
    Reconsideration), 39 I.L.M. 1181 (2000).
    International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR: Prosecutor v. Ruggiu) ,
    39 I.L.M. 1338 (2000).
    International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR: Prosecutor v. Rutaganda)
    , 39 I.L.M. 57 (2000).
    United Nations General Assembly: Optional Protocols to the Convention on
    the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict
    and on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography , 39
    I.L.M. 1285 (2000).
    United Nations: Report of the Panel on United Peace Operations , 39 I.L.M.
    1432 (2000).
    United States-Germany: Agreement Concerning the Foundation "Remembrance,
    Responsibility and Future, 39 I.L.M. 1298 (2000).
    (Settlement on compensation for forced labor during WWII).

    6. Permanent International Criminal Court
    International Center for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy,
    Manual for the Implementation and Ratification of the Rome Statute , 127
    '96. ( HYPERLINK "(" (PDF%20format).pdf).

    7. Production, Manufacture and Dissemination of Arms
    Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal: In the Matter of the People of
    Enewetak , 39 I.L.M. 1214 (2000).
    United Nations Security Council: Resolution 1284 (1999) (On the Situation
    Between Iraq and Kuwait), 39 I.L.M. 760 (2000).
    EDITORS: Bruce Zagaris, Editor-in-Chief
    Sashikala Selvendran, Assistant Editor
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    In a report published today, Amnesty International appealed to all parties in Burundi's civil war to immediately halt deliberate killings of unarmed civilians and to act responsibly to prevent a slide into human rights catastrophe.
    In a report published today, Amnesty International appealed to
    all parties in Burundi's civil war to immediately halt deliberate
    killings of unarmed civilians and to act responsibly to prevent a
    slide into human rights catastrophe.

    * News Release Issued by the International Secretariat of Amnesty
    International *

    22 March 2001
    AFR 16/011/2001

    In a report published today, Amnesty International appealed to
    all parties in Burundi's civil war to immediately halt deliberate
    killings of unarmed civilians and to act responsibly to prevent a
    slide into human rights catastrophe.

    Amnesty International's report, Burundi:Between hope and
    fear, paints a deeply disturbing picture of the inexorable rise
    in killings of unarmed civilians, "disappearances", torture,
    arbitrary arrests and massive population displacement. The report
    also looks at the legal protection the peace agreement should
    provide, and argues that "without justice, there can be no future
    accountability, and no long term security."

    Since the signing of the Arusha peace agreement on August
    28 2000, violence has escalated leaving hundreds of civilians
    killed. "Signature of the peace agreement has in no way changed
    patterns of human rights abuse in Burundi," the organization
    said. "However, whatever its shortcomings, the peace agreement
    represents a key moment in Burundi's political history which
    could serve as an opportunity to break decades of violence and

    The peace agreement, which is yet to come into force,
    represents the best opportunity in recent years to ensure better
    respect for human rights in Burundi. It provides a framework to
    acknowledge and investigate past human rights abuses and to
    reform and strengthen institutions such as the judiciary and
    armed forces.

    "The alternative of continued and escalating conflict, of
    generalized violence and further human rights crisis, must be
    avoided at all costs", said Amnesty International. "The hundreds
    of incidents of human rights abuses and violence since August
    underline the desperate need to find a solution to Burundi's
    precarious situation."

    The Amnesty International report calls on all parties in the
    conflict to:
    take immediate action to prevent further unlawful
    killings of unarmed civilians;
    investigate allegations of human rights abuses made by
    the security forces and armed opposition groups, and bring the
    perpetrators to justice;
    stop recruiting children or forcing them to perform work
    in support of the military or armed opposition operations;
    undertake reforms to ensure a functioning and impartial
    legal system ;
    protect the rights of internally displaced persons and
    guarantee that employees of humanitarian and human rights
    organizations are not threatened, arrested or killed, and can
    freely carry out their work.

    The report also calls on the international community to
    use their political influence and financial resources to support
    programs to promote and protect human rights in Burundi. "The
    ability of the Government of Burundi and inter-governmental
    agencies to implement these recommendations will be seriously
    diminished without the support of key donor agencies," Amnesty
    International added. "We also urge the international community to
    recognize and support the key role which national human rights
    groups play in defending human rights."
    public document
    Note to editors
    The audio-visual media team at Amnesty International has a short
    video on Burundi available for broadcast use in English and
    French. "Caught in the Crossfire: The Struggle for Human Rights
    in Burundi" covers the following issues: population displacement,
    prison conditions, deaths in custody, 'disappearances' and

    Please, note that certain copyright conditions apply. To order
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    e-mail: [email protected]

    For more information please call Amnesty International's press
    office in London, UK, on +44 20 7413 5566
    Amnesty International, 1 Easton St., London WC1X 0DW web :

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    President Bush said yesterday he intends to nominate an ambassador-at-large for war crimes issues, after weeks of speculation that his administration might reduce the Clinton administration's commitment to international institutions of justice.
    Copyright 2001 Globe Newspaper Company

    The Boston Globe

    March 22, 2001, Thursday ,THIRD EDITION


    LENGTH: 448 words


    BYLINE: By Elizabeth Neuffer, GLOBE STAFF


    UNITED NATIONS - President Bush said yesterday he intends to nominate an
    ambassador-at-large for war crimes issues, after weeks of speculation that
    his administration might reduce the Clinton administration's commitment to
    international institutions of justice.

    Pierre-Richard Prosper, a former prosecutor with the International Criminal
    Tribunal for Rwanda, was Bush's choice for the post within the US State
    Department, the White House said yesterday.

    "I am honored to be under consideration," said Prosper, 37, who now
    serves as a special counsel in the war crimes office.

    In January, US Secretary of State Colin L. Powell was said to be leaning
    toward abolishing the war crimes bureau, a top priority of his predecessor,
    Madeleine Albright. Albright, who played a pivotal role in creating the two
    war crimes tribunals for Yugoslavia and Rwanda while acting as ambassador
    to the United Nations, had created the office to ensure attention was paid
    to war crimes issues.

    David Scheffer, an Albright aide, played a key role in ensuring the
    tribunals were adequately funded and that crucial intelligence needed for
    indictments reached prosecutors. Powell earlier this year had said such
    duties could be overseen by other parts of the State Department, State
    Department aides had said.

    Yesterday's announcement appears to indicate a change of heart, advocates
    say. "It's a very positive signal from the new administration," said Nina
    Bang-Jensen, of the Coalition for International Justice in Washington, DC,
    a watchdog group on issues of international justice.

    The announcement comes at crucial time for the International Criminal
    Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. Serbia has until March 31 to hand over
    former leader Slobodan Milosevic to the war crimes tribunal in the Hague or
    face losing American aid. The Bush administration must also wrestle with
    what to do about a treaty creating an international criminal court.

    Prosper, while at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, oversaw
    the prosecution of the case of Jean-Paul Akayesu, the first official ever
    to be convicted for genocide. The case, which focused on the killings and
    rapes in a Rwandan village, made legal history as the first in which judges
    ruled that rape was a crime against humanity and an act of genocide.

    Prosper, the son of Haitian doctors living in upstate New York, is a
    graduate of Boston College and the Pepperdine School of Law.

    "It's terrific," said Bang-Jensen of Prosper's appointment, recalling how
    Prosper went personally to deliver the verdict in the Akayesu case to the
    village involved. "The impressive thing about him is that he clearly hasn't
    forgotten the victims."

    Civil Society organisations reject changes to constitution


    The Law Association of Zambia in conjunction with the Church, that is to say
    the Zambia Episcopal Conference (ZEC), The Christian Council of Zambia
    (CCZ), The Evangelical Fellowship of Zambia (EFZ) and the Non-Governmental
    Organisations Coordinating Committee (NGOCC) and the People gathered here,
    having deemed it necessary, expedient, imperative and desirable to promote
    and conduct a debate in relation to the intimation by the ruling party, the
    Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) to amend the Republican
    Constitution to provide a third term of office in order to facilitate the
    eligibility of the incumbent President FTJ Chiluba in the forthcoming
    Presidential and Parliamentary Elections.

    Egyptian law, policies encourage torture - rights group


    Egypt's legal, political and social climate encourages the use of torture during detention and leaves victims without adequate means of redress, an Egyptian human rights group said on Monday.
    March 20, 2001
    Cairo (Reuters) - Egypt's legal, political and social
    climate encourages the use of torture during detention
    and leaves victims without adequate means of redress,
    an Egyptian human rights group said on Monday.

    A key reason behind the spread of torture was the
    country's emergency law, in force since the
    assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981, said a
    new report by the Human Rights Centre for the
    Assistance of Prisoners (HRCAP).

    "The report states that the emergency law provides a
    fertile climate for the spread of torture, as it
    allows for long periods of detention without
    guarantees such as visiting rights and contact with
    lawyers," the centre said in a news release.

    "Ninety-nine percent of the 1 124 cases included in
    the report were under the emergency law," it said.

    HRCAP director Mohammed Zarei told Reuters that the
    report included cases of torture committed between
    1981 and 1999, and took two years to compile.

    The report said that deficiencies in the prison law
    and penal code, as well as political and social
    practices also encouraged the use of torture. At the
    same time, limited opportunities of redress for
    victims meant there was no deterrent for offenders.

    "Citizens have no way of taking their torturers to
    court, according to the criminal code procedures, as
    they are deprived of the right to file direct court
    cases against police officers," the press release

    While some victims have received government
    compensation, the centre said the money was taken from
    public funds "while those who commit torture do not
    bear any responsibility or obligation".

    "HRCAP requests comprehensive political and
    constitutional reform starting with the repeal of the
    emergency law," the statement said.

    "The recommendations also emphasise the need for
    establishing a basic climate that guarantees respect
    for human rights in democratic societies," it added,
    also calling for real political plurality, freedom of
    the press, independence of the judiciary, rule of law
    and free and fair elections.

    Egypt has said in the past that it investigates
    reports of torture and prosecutes any perpetrators.

    The US State Department said in its annual human
    rights report in February that eight people were
    reported to have died last year in Egyptian jails
    after torture.

    International human rights watchdog Amnesty
    International said last month that torture remained
    widespread in Egyptian police stations and detention

    Election of judges for the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia


    Attached is a memo and copies of reports from the Coalition regarding the election of judges for the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY).
    Dear Colleagues,

    Attached is a memo and copies of reports from the Coalition regarding the
    election of judges for the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia
    (ICTY). While many excellent candidates were elected and reelected, the
    process of nominations and elections as it now exists is a travesty. The
    present process cannot assure that the mandates for qualifications, and
    gender, regional and legal system representation that are in the ICC
    Statute will be honored in the election process for the ICC. The present
    process is woefully untransparent.

    As with many UN elections the current process is reportedly dominated by
    rampant and uncontrolled "election horsetrading." Governments enter into
    "deals" where if a government votes for one country's candidate for ICTY,
    then they agree to vote for the others' candidates for some other office
    (other international judicial appointments, ICJ, Law of Sea Tribunal,
    International Law Commission, Security Council, many, many election

    It is very probable, for example, that vote trading occurred between the
    ICTY election and the election of members to the International Law
    Commissin (ILC) and for the 27 special case judges to be chosen in June has
    already occurred. NGOs, national parliamentarians, media and others do not
    even know what candidates have been submitted for the ILC or the 27
    judgeships! If this continues unchanged, by the time the ICC judges are
    elected, many prior agreements for election may have occurred well before
    the election and before civil society has any change to influence the process.

    As you will see in the attached report on the election, Judge Mumba, the
    only woman candidate of 26 nominees, did not get elected until the 7th
    ballot. She was not helped by the fact (reportedly) that Zambia made no
    efforts to promote her election. Indeed, it is very possible that it was
    the Women's Caucus public outcry reported in UN news accounts that helped
    prevent a complete disaster for Judge Mumba.

    The current process has many tremendous disadvantages for small nations.
    But, I was approached by several candidates from larger Western governments
    expressing great disgust with what they had had to go through in their
    campaigns for the ICTY.

    The Coalition will work with its members, sympathetic governments,
    sucessful and unsuccessful candidates and other experts in the coming
    months to propose ways to prevent or minimize a repeat of this procedure in
    the election of the June judges and especially the ICC judges in 2002 or 2003.

    But, the attached reports are important and revealing and I encourage all
    to read them.

    Bill Pace
    Convenor CICC

    Wednesday March 14 11:36 PM ET

    One Woman, 13 Men Elected to UN War Crimes Court
    By Evelyn Leopold
    UNITED NATIONS (Reuters) - Thirteen men and one woman were elected on
    Wednesday as judges for the U.N. war crimes court for the former
    Yugoslavia, following protests over the lack of female candidates and
    questions about jurists' qualifications.
    Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba, of Zambia, was the sole woman chosen by
    the 189-member U.N. General Assembly but only after the seventh ballot and
    following the withdrawal of three other candidates from sub-Sahara Africa.
    Eight of the 14 judges elected are current members of the court.
    Mumba delivered a landmark verdict last month against three Bosnian Serbs,
    thereby establishing rape and sexual enslavement as a crime against
    Diplomats said the outcome of the vote based less on the qualities of a
    jurist than on how much lobbying each nation undertook for its candidate.
    In a letter to U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan (news - web sites), the
    Women's Caucus for Gender Justice, a private group, said it was
    ''appalling'' that Mumba was the lone woman among the 25 candidates
    nominated by their respective countries to vie for the tribunal's 14
    Women's groups for years have stressed the importance of female prosecutors
    and judges for the court, especially since American Gabrielle Kirk McDonald
    resigned as president of the tribunal in November 1999.
    Elected on Wednesday from the United States was Theodor Meron, an
    international law expert at New York University. Secretary of State Colin
    Powell (news - web sites) earlier withdrew the Clinton administration's
    nomination of David Scheffer, the former U.S. ambassador-at-large for war
    Controversies did not end there. Shortly before the vote Mexico told the
    assembly that the tribunal violated the U.N. Charter and Russia called for
    its abolition, saying it was anti-Serb and that such courts should be left
    to the new Balkan states.
    In addition, deputy prosecutor of the court Graham Blewitt last week said
    none of the new candidates nominated by their respective countries were
    experienced criminal trial judges.
    He told the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London it
    would be a disaster to have court's chambers dominated by academics or
    civil court judges.
    The tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, based at The Hague (news - web
    sites), was created by the U.N. Security Council in 1993 to try individuals
    responsible for atrocities during the Balkan wars.
    The four-year terms of its original 11 judges expired in November 1997,
    when another election was held. In 1998 the U.N. General Assembly chose
    three more jurists for a new, third trial chamber. The terms of all 14
    judges expire in November.
    An absolute majority of 96 was needed to elect or reelect a judge among the
    assembly's 189 members in a secret ballot.
    Court's French President Elected On First Ballot
    Twelve jurists were chosen on the first ballot including Claude Jorda of
    France, the current president of the court, who received 113 votes. Others
    were Fausto Pocar of Italy (130); David Hunt of Australia (122), Patrick
    Robinson of Jamaica (120); Meron of the United States (119); Carmel Agius
    of Malta (118); Wolfgang Schomburg of Germany (118); Liu Daqun of China
    (116); Richard May of Britain (115); Alphonsus Martinus Maria Orie of the
    Netherlands (114); Ogon Kwon of South Korea (109); and Mohammed
    Shahabuddeen of Guyana (105).
    An Egyptian jurist Mohammed el Abassi Elhahdi was elected on the fourth
    ballot with 105 votes and Mumba then filled the 14th slot after seven
    ballots and eight hours of voting.
    The tribunal was established to try those responsible for a lengthy list of
    crimes, including massacres, rapes, expulsions and bombing of civilians in
    Bosnia and Croatia following the 1991 breakup of Yugoslavia.
    Russian delegate Vladimir Tarabrin said the tribunal was anti-Serb,
    operated under sealed indictment and used NATO (news - web sites) forces to
    capture suspects, sometimes resulting in the loss of lives. Instead, the
    newly independent countries in the Balkans should be permitted to conduct
    their own trials, he said.

    Copyright 2001 M2 Communications Ltd.


    March 15, 2001

    LENGTH: 3004 words


    ÝÝGeneral Assembly elects 14 judges to tribunal for Former Yugoslavia


    The General Assembly, in a day-long meeting today, elected 14 judges to
    the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, in seven
    rounds of secret balloting.
    The Tribunal was established by the Security Council in 1993 to prosecute
    serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the
    territory of the former Yugoslavia during the conflict there in the early
    1990s. The 11 original judges were elected to four-year terms in 1997.
    The following year 3 judges were added for an additional Trial Chamber.
    The terms of all 14 judges are due to expire on 16 November.
    Twenty-five candidates were nominated by their governments. Those elected
    today, who will begin their four-year terms on 17 November, are:
    Carmel A. Agius (Malta, born 1945), member of the Permanent Court of
    Arbitration in The Hague.
    Mohamed Amin El Abbassi Elmahdi (Egypt, 1936), President of the Conseil
    d'Etat since July 2000 and Head of the Supreme Administrative Court.
    David Hunt (Australia, 1935), judge on the International Criminal Tribunal
    for the Former Yugoslavia since 16 November 1998.
    Claude Jorda (France, 1938), elected President of the International
    Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in 1999, he previously served as a judge
    on the Tribunal from 1994.
    O-gon Kwon (Republic of Korea, 1953), Senior Judge in the Taegu High Court
    in his country since 2000. From 1999 to 2000, he was Senior Judge in the
    Seoul District Court.
    Liu Daqun (China, 1950), member of the Tribunal's Trial Chamber II.
    Richard George May (United Kingdom, 1938), the presiding judge in the
    Tribunal's Appeals Chamber between 1999 and 2000, and elected to the
    Tribunal in 1997.
    Theodor Meron (United States), Counsellor on International Law to his
    country's Department of State and a leading scholar of international
    criminal law, international humanitarian law and human rights.
    Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia, 1948), judge of the Tribunal
    since 1997, Vice-President from November 1999.
    Alphonsus Martinus Maria Orie (Netherlands, 1947), a Justice of his
    country's Supreme Court.
    Fausto Pocar (Italy, 1939), founder of the University of Milan's
    Postgraduate School of European Community Law and Economics and its
    Director until 2000.
    Patrick Lipton Robinson (Jamaica), judge on the Tribunal since November
    since 1998 and member of the Tribunal's Working Group on Judicial
    Wolfgang Schomburg (Germany, 1948), a judge at the Federal High Court in
    Karlsruhe until 2000 and working on behalf of the Council of Europe.
    Mohamed Shahabuddeen (Guyana, 1931), judge on the Tribunal since June
    1997 and its Vice-President from November of that year to November 1999.
    For complete curriculae vitae of the elected judges, see document A/55/773.
    The judges were elected by an absolute majority of all Member States and
    non-member States maintaining permanent observer missions at United Nations
    Headquarters (the Holy See and Switzerland), whether or not they voted or
    were allowed to vote. The absolute majority, therefore, consisted of 96
    Before the balloting today, the representative of Mexico said his
    delegation would not participate in the election of judges, as, in
    establishing the Tribunal, the Security Council had gone beyond its powers.
    He was convinced that, once it was operational, the International Criminal
    Court, the establishment of which followed the rules of international law,
    would render unnecessary the creation of new special tribunals.
    The Permanent Observer of the Holy See also announced it would not
    participate in the voting process.
    The representative of the Russian Federation said he was concerned about
    the problems facing the Tribunal, particularly the anti-Serbian bias of the
    prosecution and its attempts to place collective guilt on the whole nation.
    His country would, nevertheless, take part in the vote, hoping that a new
    core of judges would help to overcome the Tribunal's bias and to speed up
    the conclusion of its work.
    The Assembly's President, Harri Holkeri (Finland), informed delegates that
    Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Cape Verde, Dominica and Madagascar had
    made the necessary payments to reduce their arrears below the amount
    specified in Article 19 of the Charter. (Article 19 stipulates that a
    Member State whose arrears in the payment of its financial contribution to
    the Organization equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from
    it for the preceding two full years, shall have no vote in the Assembly.)
    He also announced that on Friday, 16 March, at 3 p.m., the Assembly will
    meet to consider the Report of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and
    a note by the Secretary-General requesting the inclusion in the agenda of
    the current session of election of judges of the International Criminal
    Tribunal for Rwanda.
    The representatives of Madagascar, Burundi, Cyprus, Tunisia, Sweden,
    Colombia, Malaysia and Malawi also spoke.
    The fifty-fifth regular session of the General Assembly met this morning
    to elect judges of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of
    Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian
    Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, known
    as the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.
    The Assembly had before it a letter from the President of the Security
    Council (document A/55/771), dated 1 February, conveying to it a list of 26
    nominations for the election of 14 judges. They are: Carmel A. Agius
    (Malta), Richard Allen Banda (Malawi), Mohamed Amin El Abbassi Elmahdi
    (Egypt), Mohammed El Habib Fassi Fihri (Morocco), David Hunt (Australia),
    Claude Jorda (France), O-gon Kwon (Republic of Korea), Liu Daqun (China),
    Abderraouf Mahbouli (Tunisia), Richard George May (United Kingdom), Theodor
    Meron (United States), Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia), Rafael
    Nieto Navia (Colombia), Leopold Ntahompagaze (Burundi), Alphonsus Martinus
    Maria Orie (Netherlands), Fausto Pocar (Italy), Jonah Rahetlah
    (Madagascar), Patrick Lipton Robinson (Jamaica), Almiro Simes Rodrigues
    (Portugal), Miriam Defensor Santiago (Philippines), Wolfgang Schomburg
    (Germany), Mohamed Shahabuddeen (Guyana), Demetrakis Stylianides (Cyprus),
    Krister Thelin (Sweden), Volodymyr Vassylenko (Ukraine), and Karam Chand
    Vohrah (Malaysia).
    The Permanent Representative of the Philippines informed the President of
    the Assembly on 9 February that his Government had decided to withdraw the
    candidature of Miriam Defensor Santiago.
    The Assembly also had a memorandum by the Secretary-General (document
    A/55/769) regarding the elections, stating that the terms of office of the
    11 judges elected in 1997 is due to expire on 16 November. By its
    resolution 1168 (1998), the Security Council decided to establish a third
    Trial Chamber. Three additional judges were, therefore, elected in 1998 and
    their terms are also due to expire on 16 November.
    The memorandum further stipulates that in accordance with subparagraph 1
    (d) of article 13 of the Statute of the International Tribunal, as amended
    by Council resolution 1329 (2000), candidates who receive an absolute
    majority of the votes of States Members of the United Nations and of the
    non-Member States maintaining permanent observer missions at United Nations
    Headquarters (the Holy See and Switzerland), shall be declared elected.
    According to consistent practice, "absolute majority" is taken to mean a
    majority of all electors, whether or not they vote or are allowed to vote.
    For the purpose of the present election, 96 votes constitute an absolute
    Each elector may vote in the first ballot for no more than 14 candidates.
    If, in the first ballot, the number of candidates obtaining an absolute
    majority is less than 14, a second ballot will be held, and balloting will
    continue in the same meeting until 14 candidates have obtained an absolute
    majority. In any second or subsequent ballot, each elector may vote for no
    more than 14 candidates less the number of candidates who have already
    obtained absolute majority.
    If, in the first ballot, more than 14 candidates obtain an absolute
    majority of votes, a second ballot will be held on all candidates, and
    balloting will continue at the same meeting until 14 candidates obtain an
    absolute majority.
    The Assembly, in documents A/55/773 and Add.1, also had the curricula
    vitae of the candidates.
    GUSTAVO ALBIN (Mexico) said his delegation would once again not
    participate in the election of judges. His country had always supported
    investigating crimes against mankind and bringing to justice those
    responsible, but, in establishing the Tribunal, the Security Council had
    gone beyond its powers. An explicit provision giving the Council the
    authority to create jurisdictional organs of that nature was nowhere to be
    found in the Charter of the United Nations. He was convinced that, once it
    was operational, the International Criminal Court, the establishment of
    which followed the rules of international law, would render unnecessary the
    creation of new special tribunals. His country would, however, continue to
    pay its assessed financial contribution to the Tribunal.
    Election of Judges
    HARRI HOLKERI (Finland), Assembly President, said that the Holy See and
    Switzerland, observer States, would participate in the election in the same
    manner as Member States.
    He noted that one of the 26 candidates on the list established by the
    Security Council had withdrawn her candidacy.
    VLADIMIR TARABRIN (Russian Federation) said the Tribunal had been set up
    to operate in very specific circumstances.
    Today, despite very positive developments in the Balkan region, the
    Assembly was forced for the third time to elect judges and renew the
    Tribunal's mandate for a further four years. A temporary body such as the
    Tribunal could not be supported either politically or financially in any
    way. It could not be justified.
    The Russian Federation was concerned about the problems facing the
    Tribunal, particularly the prosecution, he said.
    Anti-Serbian bias and attempts to place collective guilt on the whole
    nation went against the Tribunal's mandate.
    Substantial corrections must be made and efforts to hide some facts of the
    tragedy must stop.
    He stressed the need to end the practice of secret memoranda between the
    Tribunal and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and to publish
    the secret memorandum of 1996 between NATO and the Tribunal, which
    sanctioned the prosecution's manhunt that had led to the killing of
    suspects and infringed on the rights of sovereign States. A new core of
    judges would help to overcome the Tribunal's bias and speed up the
    conclusion of its work. The Russian Federation would, therefore, take part
    in the vote.
    Archbishop RENATO RAFFAELE MARTINO, Observer of the Holy See, said the
    Holy See had decided to abstain from casting its vote on the individual
    candidates. In doing so, however, it renewed its confidence in the choices
    that would be made by the international community and expressed its best
    wishes to the judges who would be elected to serve the cause of justice and
    peace in the world.
    The Assembly then began the voting process. The results of the first round
    of balloting were as follows:
    Number of ballot papers: 169
    Number of invalid ballots: 1
    Abstentions: 0
    Number of Members voting: 168
    Number of votes obtained:
    Carmel A. Agius (Malta) 118
    Richard Allen Banda (Malawi) 48
    Mohamed Amin El Abbassi Elmahdi (Egypt) 94
    Mohammed El Habib Fassi Fihri (Morocco) 86
    David Hunt (Australia) 122
    Claude Jorda (France) 113
    O-gon Kwon (Republic of Korea) 109
    Liu Daqun (China) 116
    Abderraouf Mahbouli (Tunisia) 62 Richard George May (United Kingdom) 115
    Theodor Meron (United States) 119
    Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia) 72
    Rafael Nieto Navia (Colombia) 88
    Leopold Ntahompagaze (Burundi) 12
    Alphonsus Martinus Maria Orie (Netherlands) 114
    Fausto Pocar (Italy) 130
    Jonah Rahetlah (Madagascar) 32
    Patrick Lipton Robinson (Jamaica) 120
    Almiro Simes Rodrigues (Portugal) 84
    Wolfgang Schomburg (Germany) 118
    Mohamed Shahabuddeen (Guyana) 105
    Demetrakis Stylianides (Cyprus) 49
    Krister Thelin (Sweden) 65
    Volodymyr Vassylenko (Ukraine) 94
    Karam Chand Vohrah (Malaysia) 84
    Having obtained the required majority of 96 votes, the following 12 judges
    were elected: Carmel A. Agius (Malta), David Hunt (Australia), Claude Jorda
    (France), O-gon Kwon (Republic of Korea), Liu Daqun (China), Richard George
    May (United Kingdom), Theodor Meron (United States), Alphonsus Martinus
    Maria Orie (Netherlands), Fausto Pocar (Italy), Patrick Lipton Robinson
    (Jamaica), Wolfgang Schomburg (Germany), and Mohamed Shahabuddeen (Guyana).
    Second Ballot
    Having elected 12 judges, the Assembly went to a second ballot to fill the
    two remaining positions. The second ballot was unrestricted.
    Mr. HOLKERI (Finland), Assembly President, then suspended the meeting for
    15 minutes as the votes were counted.
    The results were as follows:
    Number of ballot papers: 169
    Number of invalid ballots: 0
    Abstentions: 1
    Number of Members voting: 168
    Number of votes obtained:
    Mohamed Amin El Abbassi Elmahdi (Egypt) 84
    Volodymyr Vassylenko (Ukraine) 68
    Almiro Simes Rodrigues (Portugal) 37
    Rafael Nieto Navia (Colombia) 34
    Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia) 24
    Karam Chand Vohrah (Malaysia) 21
    Krister Thelin (Sweden) 14
    Richard Allen Banda (Malawi) 7
    Demetrakis Stylianides (Cyprus) 4
    Abderraouf Mahbouli (Tunisia) 3
    Leopold Ntahompagaze (Burundi) 3
    Jonah Rahetlah (Madagascar) 1
    The PRESIDENT said that since the required majority had not been obtained,
    the Assembly would undertake another unrestricted ballot.
    He then suspended the meeting until 3 p.m.
    When the Assembly reconvened, JEAN DELACROIX BAKONIARIVO (Madagascar)
    announced that his country withdrew the candidacy of Jonah Rahetlah.
    JEAN LUC NDIZEYE (Burundi) withdrew the candidacy of Leopold Ntahompagaze.
    DEMETRIS HADJIARGYROU (Cyprus) announced that Demetrakis Stylianides had
    decided to withdraw his name.
    RADHIA ACHOURI (Tunisia) withdrew the candidacy of Abderraouf Mahbouli.
    The results of the third round of balloting, for two seats, were as follows:
    Number of ballot papers: 165
    Number of invalid ballots: 0
    Abstentions: 2
    Number of Members voting: 163
    Number of votes obtained:
    Richard Allen Banda (Malawi) 5
    Mohamed Amin El Abbassi Elmahdi (Egypt) 88
    Mohammed El Habib Fassi Fihri (Morocco) 22
    Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia) 33
    Rafael Nieto Navia (Colombia) 28
    Almiro Simes Rodrigues (Portugal) 51
    Krister Thelin (Sweden) 14
    Volodymyr Vassylenko (Ukraine) 64
    Karam Chand Vohrah (Malaysia) 12
    Since no candidate had obtained the required absolute majority of 96
    votes, the Assembly proceeded to a fourth round of balloting.
    PER NORSTROeM (Sweden) withdrew the candidacy of Krister Thelin.
    ALFONSO VALDIVIESO (Colombia) withdrew the candidacy of Rafael Nieto Navia.
    SYED HASRIN TENGKU HUSSIN (Malaysia) withdrew the candidacy of Karam Chand
    Mr. HOLKERI (Finland), Assembly President, then suspended the meeting for
    10 minutes.
    When the meeting resumed, the Assembly voted a fourth time. The results of
    the fourth round of balloting was as follows:
    Number of ballot papers: 163
    Number of invalid ballots: 0
    Abstentions: 2
    Number of Members voting: 161
    Number of votes obtained:
    Mohamed Amin El Abbassi Elmahdi (Egypt) 105
    Volodymyr Vassylenko (Ukraine) 68
    Almiro Simoes Rodrigues (Portugal) 58
    Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia) 50
    Mohamed El Habib Fassi Fihri (Morocco) 31
    Richard Allen Banda (Malawi) 4
    Mr. Elmahdi (Egypt) was thus elected, having obtained a total above the
    absolute majority of 96.
    Mr. HOLKERI (Finland), Assembly President, then announced there would be a
    fifth round of balloting to fill the remaining vacant position.
    YUSUF M. JUWAYEYI (Malawi) withdrew the candidacy of Richard Allen Banda.
    The results of the fifth round of balloting, for one seat, were as follows:
    Number of ballot papers: 161
    Number of invalid ballots: 8
    Abstentions: 2
    Number of Members voting: 151
    Number of votes obtained:
    Mohammed El Habib Fassi Fihri (Morocco) 16
    Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia) 56
    Almiro Simes Rodrigues (Portugal) 29
    Volodymyr Vassylenko (Ukraine) 50
    Since none of the candidates had acquired the absolute majority of 96
    votes, the Assembly proceeded to a sixth round of balloting.
    A sixth round of balloting was held, with the following result:
    Number of ballot papers: 156
    Number of invalid ballots: 3
    Absentions: 2
    Number of Members voting: 151
    Number of votes obtained:
    Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia) 75
    Volodymyr Vassylenko (Ukraine) 50
    Mohamed El Habib Fassi Fihri (Morocco) 13
    Almiro Simoes Rodrigues (Portugal) 13
    NUNO BRITO (Portugal) announced that his country withdrew the candidacy of
    Almiro Simoes Rodrigues.
    The results of the seventh round of balloting, for one seat, were as follows:
    Number of ballot papers: 153
    Number of invalid ballots: 1
    Abstentions: 2
    Number of Members voting: 150
    Number of votes obtained:
    Mohammed El Habib Fassi Fihri (Morocco) 13
    Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia) 103
    Volodymyr Vassylenko (Ukraine) 34
    Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia), having obtained the absolute
    majority of 96 votes, was elected as judge of the Tribunal.
    ((M2 Communications Ltd disclaims all liability for information provided
    within M2 PressWIRE. Data supplied by named party/parties. Further
    information on M2 PressWIRE can be obtained at on
    the world wide web. Inquiries to [email protected])).

    Elements For A Human Rights Activists Course And Curriculum


    Claudio Schuftan's paper "Elements For A Human Rights Activists Course And Curriculum" can be downloaded as WORD f. WINDOWS file (44 kB).

    Human Rights and the Police: A Training Manual


    This manual is being used in basic courses at police academies in Denmark. It offers a course framework and various useful overheads and handouts. The course consists of two parts: "Life, Freedom, and Liberty and Security of Person" (freedom of assembly, use of force, right to life) and "Equal Rights" (rights of refugees, protection against discrimination). The manual includes overheads and handouts on the European and UN systems, methods of investigation, questions concerning detainees' rights, and the "Rockerloven" and "Jersild" cases in Denmark.

    If you haven't done so yet, please let us know what you think of the
    Resource Centre and the ERC-L newsletter. You can fill out the
    questionnaire on-line at:
    Many thanks in advance. Your feedback will help us serve you better.

    ## FEATURE ##

    Human Rights and the Police: A Training Manual

    This manual is being used in basic courses at police academies in Denmark.
    It offers a course framework and various useful overheads and handouts. The
    course consists of two parts: "Life, Freedom, and Liberty and Security of
    Person" (freedom of assembly, use of force, right to life) and "Equal
    Rights" (rights of refugees, protection against discrimination). The manual
    includes overheads and handouts on the European and UN systems, methods of
    investigation, questions concerning detainees' rights, and the
    "Rockerloven" and "Jersild" cases in Denmark.

    * Human Rights and the Police: A Training Manual by Anette Faye Jacobsen
    and Diego Bang (Danish Centre for Human Rights, 1999). Language(s): English.
    Keywords: training manual, police, law enforcement officials, right to
    life, security of person, freedom of assembly, rights of refugees,
    discrimination, European system of human rights protection, Council of
    Europe, European Court of Human Rights, European Convention on Human
    Rights, Denmark. URL:


    New additions in weeks 16-28 February 2001:

    * Amnesty International Fair Trials Manual (London: Amnesty
    International-International Secretariat, 1998). Language(s): English,
    Spanish. Keywords: manual, lawyers, right to a fair trial, monitoring,
    Amnesty International. URL:

    * Gender, HIV and Human Rights: A Training Manual by Madhu Bala Nath (New
    York: UNIFEM, 2000). Language(s): English, French, Spanish. Keywords:
    training manual, training of trainers, HIV/AIDS, reproductive health,
    sexual health, human rights and development, right to development, right to
    health, women's rights, UNIFEM. URL:

    * Human Rights Education Newsletter, Issue Nr. 24, Autumn 1999 (published
    by the Education in Human Rights Network/Centre for Global Education,
    United Kingdom). Language(s): English. Keywords: HRE programmes, networking,
    reviews, events. URL:

    * What is Documentation. Human Rights Monitoring and Documentation Series,
    Volume 2 by Manual Guzman and Bert Verstappen (Versoix: HURIDOCS, 2001).
    Language(s): English, French. Keywords: manual, monitoring, human rights
    monitors, human rights documentation, information handling. URL:


    New courses added:

    * XIX Curso Interdisciplinario en Derechos Humanos
    Dates: 18-29 June 2001
    Level: professional
    Focus: The theme of the 19th interdisciplinary course on human rights is
    political participation. Working language is Spanish.
    Location: San José (Costa Rica)
    Deadline of application: 30 April 2001
    Organisation: Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos

    * Intensive Course in Health and Human Rights
    Dates: 11-14 June 2001
    Level: professional
    Focus: This rigorous 4-day program helps a wide range of professionals
    acquire the skills and background knowledge they
    need to successfully incorporate a human rights framework into their daily
    activities. Participants will acquire a basic understanding of both the
    history and present status of international human rights and international
    humanitarian law as they apply to public health practice.
    Location: Boston (USA)
    Deadline of application: --
    Organisation: Harvard School of Public Health

    * Seminar on internally displaced persons, refugees, and national minorities
    Dates: 6-12 May 2001
    Level: professional
    Focus: The seminar will concentrate on the plight of internally displaced
    persons and refugees, as well as on the situation
    of national minorities from the perspective of international human rights
    instruments and legislation. The working language will be Russian, with, if
    need be, interpretation into and from English.
    Location: Tbilisi (Georgia)
    Deadline of application: --
    Organisation: International Association of Lawyers of the Caucasus,
    Netherlands Helsinki Committee

    * Workshop on the Procedures of the African Human Rights System
    Dates: 21-30 May 2001
    Level: professional
    Focus: Topics covered during this workshop for human rights workers in
    southern and Eastern Africa will include an introduction to the
    international and comparative law of human rights; the African regional
    system for human rights protection; domestic application of international
    law; economic and social rights; the state reporting procedure before the
    African Commission on Human and
    Peoples' Rights; the individual complaints procedure under the African
    Charter; special procedures of the African Commission including its
    missions and special rapporteurs; the African Court On Human And Peoples'
    Rights; and other recent developments in the African regional system.
    Location: Johannesburg (South Africa)
    Deadline of application: 1 April 2001
    Organisation: Institute for Human Rights & Development


    * Centre for Peace, Nonviolence and Human Rights (Croatia) [in English and

    * Fazaldad Human Rights Institute (Pakistan) [in English]:

    * Institut International des Droits de l'Homme (IIDH) (France) [in English
    and French]:


    You can access documents and Web pages listed in this newsletter via
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    Leave the SUBJECT field BLANK, and copy the URL (Internet address) into
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    HURIDOCS gladly announces a new series of brief, practical manuals aimed to help build the capacity of human rights organisations with regard to monitoring and documentation.
    HURIDOCS gladly announces a new series of brief, practical manuals aimed to help build the capacity of human rights organisations with regard to monitoring and documentation. The Human Rights Monitoring and Documentation Series consists of two kinds of manuals: a "what is" manual provides an overview of a certain topic, and a "how to" manual is meant to impart specific skills. HURIDOCS will publish and distribute the following in 2001:

    What is Monitoring What is Documentation How to Set Up Your Documentation Centre How to Index How to Search for Information How to Record Names of Persons The volumes in this Series are especially designed for small non-governmental human rights organisations which often have limited resources and a small staff who are assigned multiple tasks. The handy size of the manuals make them excellent reference materials. In addition, they are written in a style that facilitates learning and could serve effectively as materials for training, including individualised and self-initiated learning.

    The first volume is now available on the HURIDOCS Web site <>. It is called What is Documentation. This practical manual is intended for documentalists and information workers of human rights organisations. It deals with the following issues: what is documentation, what is a document, why document, seeking information, producing documents, acquiring documents, organising documents and providing user services. This volume has been written by Manuel Guzman and Bert Verstappen.

    This volume is available in English and in French. It can be printed in HTML and PDF formats.



    The Media Foundation for West Africa (MFWA), based in Accra, Ghana, is sending a team of human rights lawyers from Ghana and Nigeria to Liberia to assist in the defense of the four journalists detained on the charge of espionage.

    The Media Foundation for West Africa (MFWA), based in Accra, Ghana,
    is sending a team of human rights lawyers from Ghana and Nigeria to
    Liberia to assist in the defense of the four journalists detained on
    the charge of espionage.

    The lawyers are from the network of human rights lawyers who work with
    the Media Foundation to provide legal assistance to journalists who in
    the course of their professional functions become victims of state and
    other forms of repression.

    The Liberian Government arrested the four journalists: Joseph Bartuah,
    Abdullai Dukuly, Jerome Dalieh and Bobby Tapson of ‘The News’ on
    February 21 for publishing that the government spent US$50,000 to
    purchase spare parts for a helicopter when civil servants had not been
    paid for four months.

    A criminal court that is hearing a jury trial involving six police
    officers accused of murder transferred the case from the magisterial
    court and indicted the journalists on February 28. This means the
    journalists will be lingering in prison since the Liberian justice
    system forbids a criminal court from handling two jury trials at the
    same time.

    Prof. Kwame Karikari
    Executive Director
    Media Foundation for West Africa
    P.O. Box LG 730 Legon
    Accra, Ghana
    Tel: 233-21-242470
    Fax: 233-21- 22-1084

    Mugabe rejects International Bar Association report


    The Zimbabwe government will not accept the report of the International Bar
    Association (IBA) following its recent inquiry into the independence of the
    judiciary, the Zimbabwe Independent has learnt. A spokesman said whatever
    the findings of the IBA, the team had already demonstrated that it was
    partial by refusing to consult all stakeholders on the issue of the
    judiciary. One of the team's members compared Zimbabwe's fasttrack land grab
    to apartheid policies.

    New SADC Chief sworn in


    Newly-appointed SADC Executive Secretary Prega Ramsamy was on Friday sworn
    in by Namibia's Chief Justice Johan Strydom in the presence of the current
    SADC chairman, Namibian President Sam Nujoma.



    The following is our petition to the National Assembly, the Attorney General and the Presidency. Please read and join us as signatories to the letter. Please forward your response to [email protected].
    It's becoming increasing clear to us now that the Nigerian military pulled a fast one on us. They are still in power. When Abiola, a civilian won, they refused to hand over to him. They annuled his victory and clung on to power. The insincerity of their various, elongated transition programs were apparent. Mounting pressure, both at home and abroad, coupled with the drying up of international aids forced them to change their "open" dictatorship approach. They went undercover in civilian clothing, and devised a plan to succeed themselves in a way that would be less obvious. Their plan worked and we have an ex-army general as president today. Other Generals are gearing up to succeed him. The more we allow them to continue to succeed themselves, the more they will be able to cover their tracks for past misdeeds. And the irony of it all is that they are using state funds which they embezzled while in office, to continue their dominance of Nigeria's political life. And they continue to bring other people of disreputable character aboard.

    It is time for us to practice true democracy in Nigeria. We have had enough of military leadership.It is time to give civilians a chance. If we have had uninterrupted democratic system since independence, Nigeria may have indeed gone along way toward achieving the greater glory once dreamed about on the onset of our independence. In order to make meaningful progress, we also need to combat the culture of corruption that has plagued our nation. To do this we need to vigorously enforce our laws. Law breakers must be prosecuted. Our leaders who stole before must be brought to account for their crimes. This is what other countries like Japan , South Korea and Indonesia did in order to lay a solid foundation that will engender progress and development. Offenders must be punished to encourage respect for the law. We must stop parading as heros, those ex-leaders who looted the Nigerian treasury. It is time for true civilian government in Nigeria. A government that will be accountable and respo
    nsible to all Nigerians. To start with, we need a South African type "Truth Commission", that will identify and set a guideline for immediate action that will help in achieving the following proposal. In
    the absence of this, we present before the following institutions and officers of the Democratic Republic Of Nigeria the petition below:

    The following is our petition to the National Assembly, the Attorney General and the Presidency. Please read and join us as signatories to the letter. Please forward your response to [email protected] .PLEASE INCLUDE YOUR NAME, TITLE (Mr. or Mrs, etc) and your location (city and country). Names of all in support would then be added to this petition and would be forwarded to the proper authorities in Nigeria. We are also working on getting the support of civil right activists in Nigeria.


    We, the undersigned hereby appeal to the Attorney General of Nigeria and all State Attorney Generals to begin enforcing the law of the country. We ask that they investigate and prosecute:
    1. Those who previously violated the constitution by overthrowing democratically elected civilian governments and for the untold crimes they have committed.
    2. Ex-military rulers and past/current senior government officials who should be made to account for their unexplained wealth.
    3. Senseless killings of Nigerians by police, the army and vigilante groups. All cases of police and army brutality and abuse of power must be investigated, and an immediate effort should be made to stop the arrests and summary killings of people by vigilante groups.
    4. Any violation of the Nigerian constitution and especially those that undermine the fundamental human rights of the average Nigerian citizen, without any exception given to ethnic, gender, religion or status.

    1. Show transparent sincerity in enforcing the law.
    2. Increase funding for law enforcement agencies/departments, especially the Police and all the attorney generals both at the state and federal levels.
    3. Stop appointing people whose integrity have been tainted by virtue of their participation in past corrupt and oppressive governments.
    4. Hands off the creation and the growth of Nigerians In Diaspora Organization (NIDO) so as to allow the organization to function with independence.
    1. Do not nominate ex-military dictators as your presidential or gubernatorial candidates.



    1. A resolution that all those involved in the overthrow of elected civilian governments be prosecuted by the Attorney General of the nation.
    2. A resolution that past government rulers and senior government officials be investigated for corruption by the attorney general (not by a specially set up body).
    3. Increase funding for law enforcement agencies/departments, especially
    the police and all the attorney generals both at the state and federal levels.
    4. A resolution that parties do not field ex-military dictators as their candidates, especially at the presidential and gubernatorial levels.
    5. A resolution asking President Obasanjo to stop appointing people whose integrity have been tainted by virtue of their participation in past corrupt and oppressive governments, especially those of Abacha and Babangida.
    6. Pass laws to reform the electoral system and campaign funding. Limit the contributions that individuals can contribute to a candidate’s campaign fund and to the candidate’s party. To force candidates to address the issues affecting voters, and to discourage money politics, pass law limiting the amount individuals can use from their own private wealth to fund their campaign. This measure would also discourage those who are using looted funds to gain undue advantage to control the political process.
    7. Pass a law banning those who previously participated in overthrowing constitutionally elected civilian government from contesting presidential, gubernatorial and federal and state legislative positions (at the time of the coup, they knew that that coup was illegal under the constitution).
    8. Pass a law banning those who overthrow elected governments in the future and all senior officials who take appointments under such illegal government from all government positions in the future. Pass law to disbar Attorney Generals and Lawyers who take senior appointments from such government.
    9. Pass a law assessing criminal and monetary penalty against those who overthrow democratically elected civilian governments in the future.
    10. Pass laws removing ex-military dictators and non elected heads of states from the Council of States and the privilege of receiving pensions.
    11. Pass a law requiring candidates to list their assets, when and how acquired, source of fund and wealth, etc. Require the police and electoral commission to verify statements given and to disqualify and prosecute those who lie.
    12. Pass laws to reform the judiciary and to promote impartial enforcement
    of the law. To ensure their independence, consider changing the manner of
    appointment and removal of judges and the attorney generals.

    We make these suggestions because we believe that it is time for our nation to make a firm and unequivocal commitment to the rule of law. We cannot make significant progress in developing our nation in an atmosphere of lawlessness. We cannot continue to pay lip service to the rule of law.
    We must put an end to the 419 culture, not by rhetorics but with sincere efforts. We must not continue to treat as heroes, those who violated the constitution, the supreme law of the land by overthrowing constitutionally elected civilian government. We must address the illegal wealth that many past and present leaders come into. We must make a clean break from the past, from corrupt and insincere leadership, from the wrong approach to politics and governance. To do nothing is to condone lawlessness and continue to reward those who previously have abused the system, through the abuse of their offices, embezzlement and coup d'etat. Public posts are positions of trust and must be earned. We must stop the effect of dirty money on Nigerian politics. We must take significant measures to seriously discourage military coups and embezzlement of public funds. We must resolve to be a nation of law and order, not just by words, but by actions and sincere efforts.

    We ask all conscientious Nigerians to join us in signing this petition. Your support makes a difference. Please join and support this cause by signing this petition !!!. To join, simply reply to this email by forwarding your reply to, mailto:[email protected] and INCLUDE YOUR NAME AND LOCATION. After all signatures are collected, a final copy would be posted on the egroups and at other relevant Internet sites. Your suggestions and comments are welcomed. After forwarding your response to us, please help us circulate this petition further to others.

    Thank you for your time and cooperation.

    Ken Somoye, NJ, USA
    Bamidele A. Ojo, NJ, USA
    Pete Sofiyea, IL, USA
    Andrew Edvebie, MI, USA
    Paul Olatoye, MD, USA
    Hillary Evbayiro
    Omolola Ogunyemi
    Richard Olumakin, PA, USA
    Sowore Omoyele
    W. Akinade

    Contact: [email protected]>

    Resource book: Socio Economic Rights in South Africa


    The Socio-Economic Rights contained in the South African Constitution are the result of a long struggle against many years of apartheid poverty, discrimination and inequality. But what do these hardwon rights, such as land and health care rights, mean for people in their everyday lives? What laws and institutions are available to assist people in protecting and advancing these rights?
    The Socio-Economic Rights Project

    Presents Socio Economic Rights in South Africa
    Edited by Sandra Liebenberg & Karrisha Pillay

    The Socio-Economic Rights contained in the South African Constitution are the result of a long struggle against many years of apartheid poverty, discrimination and inequality. But what do these hardwon rights, such as land and health care rights, mean for people in their everyday lives? What laws and institutions are available to assist people in protecting and advancing these rights?

    The first part of the book gives a general introduction to socio-economic rights and their protection in South Africa and internationally. Then the book examines eight specific socio-economic rights in South Africa: environmental, land, housing, health care, food, water, social security and education rights.

    The book aims to:
    · Provide useful resource materials on socio-economic rights
    · Inspire creative action to claim and advance these socio-economic rights, and
    · Raise awareness of the strategies you can use to defend and promote these rights.

    With its plain language explanations, examples, guidelines, court case summaries, case studies and discussion ideas, the book is a practical tool to help you influence laws and policies, run campaigns, and challenge violations of socio-economic rights.

    To order please fill in the following information and send it to the address below.

    Postal Address………………………………………………………………………………
    Please indicate how many copies you would like next to the category that applies to you.

    …….R50 (South Africa - NGO’s) .……R100 (South Africa - Other)
    …….R100 (Outside SA – NGO’s) .……R150 (Outside SA – Other)

    Make cheques payable to: The Community Law Centre – UWC
    *(These prices include postage and handling)

    The Director, Community Law Centre, University of the Western Cape,
    Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535. Tel: (+27) 021 959 2950 Fax: (+27) 021 959 2411

    Safety fears rise after Nujoma's anti-gay tirade


    Namibian President Sam Nujoma's attack on homosexuals this week could lead to violence against innocent citizens, says a local human rights group.

    Senegal bars charges against Chad ex-dictator


    Senegal's highest court yesterday ruled that Chad's exiled former president, Hissène Habré, could not stand trial on torture charges because his alleged crimes were not committed in Senegal.

    South Africa: Sexual Violence Rampant in Schools

    Harassment South Africa: Sexual Violence Rampant in Schools


    (Johannesburg, March 27, 2001) In schools across South Africa, thousands of girls of every race and economic group are encountering sexual violence and harassment that impede their access to education, Human Rights Watch charged in a report released today.
    South Africa: Sexual Violence Rampant in Schools
    Harassment and Rape Hampering Girls' Education

    (Johannesburg, March 27, 2001) In schools across South Africa, thousands
    of girls of every race and economic group are encountering sexual
    violence and harassment that impede their access to education, Human
    Rights Watch charged in a report released today.

    School authorities rarely challenge the perpetrators, and many girls
    interrupt their education or leave school altogether because they feel
    vulnerable to sexual assault, Human Rights Watch said.

    "Girls are learning that sexual violence and abuse are an inescapable
    part of going to school every day -- so they don't go," said Erika
    George, counsel to the Academic Freedom Program at Human Rights Watch
    and the author of the report. "South African
    officials say they're committed to educational equality. If they mean
    it, they must address the problem of sexual violence in schools, without

    The 138-page report, "Scared at School: Sexual Violence Against Girls in
    South African Schools," is based on extensive interviews with victims,
    their parents, teachers, and school administrators in KwaZulu-Natal,
    Gauteng, and the Western Cape. It documents how girls
    are raped, sexually abused, sexually harassed, and assaulted
    at school by their male classmates and even by their teachers.

    According to the report, girls have been attacked in school toilet
    facilities, in empty classrooms and corridors, hostel rooms and
    dormitories. Teachers can misuse their authority to sexually abuse
    girls, sometimes reinforcing sexual demands with threats of corporal
    punishment or promises of better grades, or even money.

    Human Rights Watch called on the South African government and its
    National Department of Education to develop a national plan of action to
    address the problem of school-based sexual violence, in broad
    cooperation with students, parents, teachers, and school administrators.

    The South African government has acknowledged the problem's severity and
    made significant efforts to improve the state response to violence
    against women. But the Human Rights Watch report found that school
    officials still fail to protect their girl pupils from rape, sexual
    assault, and sexual harassment. The government does not even collect
    data on the incidence of sexual violence and harassment occurring in
    schools, or the number of girls who leave school due to such violence.

    While it is mandatory to report child abuse in South Africa, girls who
    report sexual abuse generally receive hostile or indifferent responses
    from school authorities. According to the report, schools often promise
    to handle matters internally, and urge girls' families not to alert
    police or draw publicity to problems.

    The South African government has constitutional and international legal
    obligations to protect women and girls from violence. International
    human rights treaties that South Africa has ratified, as well as
    national legislation, require the government to provide all children an
    education that is free from discrimination on the basis of sex. Failure
    to prevent and redress persistent gender-based violence in schools
    operates as a discriminatory deprivation of the right to education for

    "South Africa needs a systematic strategy to address the problem,"
    George said. "Leadership at every level is vital to create an education
    system free of gender bias and sexual violence."

    Human Rights Watch urged the government to adopt and disseminate a set
    of standard procedural guidelines governing how schools are to address
    allegations of sexual violence and explaining how schools should treat
    victims, and perpetrators, of violence.

    The full report can be found at

    For more information on academic freedom in Africa, please see:

    HRW World Report 2001: Academic Freedom at

    Kenya: Spare the Child: Corporal Punishment in Kenyan Schools (HRW
    Report, September 1999) at

    Sudan government denies atrocities claims


    The Sudanese government has denied claims by British development agency Christian Aid that atrocities are being committed by its forces in areas around oil fields.



    The UK ICC Bill passed in the Lords last night, 20th March and has been passed to the House of Commons. We have no idea of the timetable but can expect the 1st reading very soon. This is a procedural point only when the Commons notes that the Bill has been passed to it from the Lords.
    The substantial debates will start at the 2nd reading in around 10 days time
    or so.

    The One World Trust - 50 Years Promoting a Greater Sense of World Community.
    Room 601, 7 Millbank, London, SW1A 3JA, UK.
    T/F. +44 (0) 20 7219 3825, E. [email protected]
    <mailto:[email protected]> ,
    Charity No. 210180

    Charter 99, The Charter for Global Democracy,

    UN Angola mission 'alarmed' by rights abuses


    A United Nations-led inter-agency mission to Angola has reacted with alarm to the numerous allegations of human rights abuses it heard on its six-day visit.

    UN human rights chief to step down


    The United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights this week announced her decision not to stand for a second four-year term in the world's top human rights post. But, once out of office, will she regret it?

    UN International Day in Support of Victims of Torture


    On 26 June 2001, individuals and organizations worldwide will join the international campaign to commemorate the UN International Day in Support of Victims of Torture. This year, the IRCT is coordinating the fourth consecutive global campaign to support these events in every region of the world. We hope that you will also be a part of this special day.
    This year the theme of the campaign is ‘Together against Torture’, reflecting the multi-disciplinary action needed to support victims of torture and to work for the prevention of torture worldwide. The work against torture requires the combined efforts of rehabilitation centres, human rights organizations, the legal profession, governments, the media, and individuals across the globe. This year’s campaign aims to both empower torture survivors and to renew support for our shared responsibility in working for the eradication of torture.

    Together Against Torture
    The IRCT is a member of the Coalition of International NGOs against Torture (CINAT), together with Amnesty International (AI), The Association for the Prevention of Torture (APT), The International Federation of Action by Christians for the Abolition of Torture (FiACAT), The World Organisation against Torture (OMCT), and Redress. We therefore ask you to consider joining with local offices of these organizations, where possible, to strengthen the impact of your events.
    On 26 June 2000, individuals and organizations held commemorative events in more than 80 countries worldwide. This year, we hope to both increase the number of countries participating in the campaign, and to further strengthen the impact of local events. We encourage human rights organizations, student organizations, rehabilitation centres and others to consider joint events.

    How can you participate?
    Commemorative events may include media events or press conferences, seminars or workshops, letter writing campaigns and torture victim testimonies aimed at governments and/or local officials, open house events, benefit dinners, cultural events, peaceful street marches, rallies or candle-light vigils.
    To support your activities, the IRCT is able to provide you with a limited range of 26 June campaign materials free of charge such as press and campaign kits (in English, French, Spanish, and Russian), T-shirts, and posters. Should you wish to translate the text of the press kit and other background information into other languages, please let us know and we can forward the written materials to you by e-mail or fax. Of course, you may decide to produce your own materials instead of, or to complement, the materials we can provide. Please find enclosed an order form, which we ask you to complete and return to us no later than 25 April 2001, so that your campaign materials will reach you in time!
    Keeping you informed
    The IRCT will keep you updated on 26 June 2001 activities on our special webpage We ask you to please keep us informed of your plans so that we can place your activities on the website. In addition to sharing your plans with rehabilitation centres and organizations worldwide, you can help to raise awareness of the campaign among media, human rights organizations and other professions which may be interested in joining with you or supporting your events on this important day. In fact, many participants in last year’s campaign increased the impact of their activities by identifying and creating local partnerships.
    In case you do not have access to the Internet, you can request in the enclosed order form to receive monthly updates on the campaign by mail, e-mail or fax. We look forward to hearing about the results of your activities as part of the 26 June 2001 campaign!

    You can make a difference
    We recognize that you may have limited resources to organize big events. This is why the IRCT is delighted to be able to support you by providing 26 June campaign materials free of charge and by providing a forum on the IRCT Website through which we can all share our plans for this important day. Please do not hesitate to contact our Campaign Officer, Anja Zuschlag, for any further information, by e-mail [email protected] or fax (45) 33 76 05 00.
    We look forward to your participation in the global campaign on this year’s 26 June – UN International Day in Support of Victims of Torture.

    Yours sincerely

    Jens Modvig, MD PhD
    IRCT Secretary General

    Suzanne Munro Clark
    Director, Advocacy and Information

    Please return the completed form to Ms. Anja Zuschlag, Campaign Officer, preferably by e-mail: [email protected] or by fax +45 33 76 05 00.


    New design: Green leaves emerging through a black “T” frame, signifying hope and empowerment, against a white background. The 2001 logo builds on the global recognition of previous logos, however represents a more positive and powerful message.
    Text: "26 June – United Nations International Day in Support of Victims of Torture" in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, and Chinese
    2 sizes available: Large (70x100 cm) and Small (30x42 cm)

    Quantity (maximum 5 posters each)
    Large posters
    Small posters

    PRESS KITS (for media use)
    Containing fact sheets, general media release, and background information.
    Languages: English, French, Spanish, and Russian.

    Quantity (maximum 10 in total)

    CAMPAIGN KITS (for your internal use)
    Containing suggestions for how to organize your activities or events.
    Languages: English, French, Spanish, and Russian.

    Quantity (maximum 1 copy per language)

    New design: White cap with the 26 June 2001 logo on the front. (Green leaves emerging through a black “T” frame, signifying hope and empowerment.)
    Size: One-size

    Quantity (maximum 10 caps)

    New design: White t-shirt with the 26 June 2001 logo on the front (Green leaves emerging through a black “T” frame, signifying hope and empowerment.)
    Text on back: "26 June – United Nations International Day in Support of Victims of Torture" in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, and Chinese
    Size: One-size

    Quantity (maximum 10 t-shirts)

    New Design: Green leaves emerging through a black “T” frame, signifying hope and empowerment, against a white background.

    Quantity (maximum 50 pins)

    Quantity (maximum10 flags)

    For school students of approx. 15-17 years of age.
    Languages: English, French, Spanish

    Quantity (maximum 50 in total)


    Available on Internet:
    How can we send you information? (please mark/tick one)
    Ordinary mail

    Contact details of your centre/organization











    One of the world's most powerful international financial institutions is violating international standards on freedom of information. The World Bank's review of its own information disclosure policy singularly fails to guarantee the public's right to know and allows individual countries the right to veto disclosure of information. ARTICLE 19, the Global Campaign for Free Expression, demands that the institution substantially revise its proposals.
    19 February 2001 - For immediate release

    One of the world's most powerful international
    financial institutions is violating international
    standards on freedom of information. The World Bank's
    review of its own information disclosure policy
    singularly fails to guarantee the public's right to
    know1 and allows individual countries the right to
    veto disclosure of information. ARTICLE 19, the Global
    Campaign for Free Expression, demands that the
    institution substantially revise its proposals.

    In a letter submitted to the World Bank's consultation
    process, ARTICLE 19 welcomes the Bank's review of its
    1993 policy on information disclosure, and the
    proposal to disclose more documents to the public.
    However, the bid for reform falls short in several key
    areas, including the lack of an independent appeals
    process; no clear timelines on decision-making; no
    necessity for written explanations for a refusal; no
    harm tests or public interest tests; no protection for

    Toby Mendel, Head of ARTICLE 19's Law Programme said:

    "The World Bank needs to go much further if it wants
    to improve its policy on transparency. The Bank is
    being excessively secretive and giving too much power
    to individual countries by allowing their governments
    to dictate whether a document should be released. This
    is information which affects millions of people and
    they have a fundamental right to access it."

    ARTICLE 19 urges that the World Bank revise its policy
    in order to:

    Establish an independent body to review refusals by
    the Bank to disclose information;

    Include strict timelines for the disclosure of
    information and a requirement that any refusals be
    accompanied with substantive written reasons;

    Require that all exceptions are subject to substantial
    harm and public interest tests;

    Provide protection for whistleblowers;

    Review its policy to allow individual countries to
    veto information disclosure.


    For further information contact Ken Bhattarcharjee at
    ARTICLE 19 on + 44 20 7278 9292, [email protected]

    Notes for Editors:

    1.See The Public's Right to Know: Principles on
    Freedom of Information Legislation, ARTICLE 19, 1999.

    2.The consultation process continues until 31 March
    2001. Full information on the World Bank's review of
    its Policy on Information Disclosure can be found


    ARTICLE 19, the Global Campaign for Free Expression

    Named after Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of
    Human Rights, we work worldwide to combat censorship
    by promoting freedom of expression and access to
    official information.

    With partners in over 30 countries, we work to
    strengthen local capacity to monitor and protest
    institutional and informal censorship.

    We monitor, research, publish, lobby, campaign and
    litigate on behalf of freedom of expression wherever
    it is threatened. We develop standards to advance
    media freedom, assist individuals to speak out and
    campaign for the free flow of information.

    ARTICLE 19 is registered as a charity in the UK

    Visit Article 19:

    Refugees & forced migration

    Burundi: An Opportunity to Save Lives


    The prospects for resolution of the humanitarian and political crisis in Burundi continue to look very bleak. There is an opportunity, however, at this moment for the international community to help save lives in the Northeastern provinces - the most populous region in Burundi. But the Government of Burundi, the United Nations, and international NGOs must act in concert immediately to avert further suffering of the Burundian people.
    The prospects for resolution of the humanitarian and
    political crisis in Burundi continue to look very
    bleak. There is an opportunity, however, at this
    moment for the international community to help save
    lives in the Northeastern provinces - the most
    populous region in Burundi. But the Government of
    Burundi, the United Nations, and international NGOs
    must act in concert immediately to avert further
    suffering of the Burundian people.

    Refugees International was in Burundi this past month,
    following up on three assessment missions in 2000. On
    the current mission, just completed, RI noted three
    encouraging developments. First, in December, the
    Paris Conference of world donors pledged an
    unprecedented $440 million for the development and
    reconstruction of Burundi, pledges that were
    implicitly linked to continued progress on peace as
    outlined in the Arusha Peace Accord of August 2000.
    Second, the UN and the government of Burundi signed a
    protocol agreement to discuss the plight of the
    internally displaced. Third, NGOs and UN humanitarian
    agencies have witnessed an increased level of security
    in the Northeast.

    The Northeast has been afflicted by a two-year
    catastrophic cycle of drought followed by heavy rains
    as well as an epidemic of malaria. The Burundian
    Ministry of Public Health reported 1.8 million cases
    of malaria in the last four months of 2000 alone, with
    more than three million cases treated during the whole
    of 2000. This disease currently affects one out of
    every two Burundians, with most of this epidemic
    occurring in the Northeast, the same area that is now
    suffering from a dramatic increase in malnutrition.

    The NGOs operating feeding centers in the Northeast
    report that they are facing triple the number of
    people compared to 18 months ago, and they do not have
    enough capacity to meet the increased need. The 2000
    harvest was below normal and the current harvest will
    be meager, as the rains have been unusually heavy
    during the planting season, washing out seeds and
    bringing both flashfloods and erosion. The
    consequences of malaria and growing malnutrition take
    a large toll on farmers, as they depend upon their
    physical health to plant and harvest. And, because of
    the civil war, a UN official told Refugees
    International, "these people have not been eating well
    for seven years."

    The government of Burundi needs to highlight this
    catastrophe. "The government has a big responsibility
    to tell the international community what is
    happening," one UN official told RI, "There are things
    that foreigners cannot do in the government's place."
    In spite of a failed peace process and continuous
    fighting, the government should raise a call for help
    for the plagued Northeast.

    The humanitarian community cannot count on an end to
    conflict in Burundi. While the Arusha Peace Accord
    signed on August 28, 2000 raised hopes for peace in
    Burundi, the war continues today. Current formal talks
    in Arusha being mediated by Nelson Mandela are
    deadlocked over the issue of who will lead the
    transition. Yet, without a cease-fire, all talk of a
    transitional government is moot. Furthermore, peace in
    Burundi is integrally linked to peace in the
    Democratic Republic of Congo. Until the region becomes
    more stable with fewer armies and militias, there will
    not be much pressure on Burundi to find a solution to
    their own civil war. There is a glimmer of hope that
    such stability may be achieved in light of recent
    agreements on the timetable for withdrawal of foreign
    forces from the DRC.

    While donors have rightly attached the condition of
    peace to their development and reconstruction
    packages, emergency assistance is not, and should not
    be, so constrained. The humanitarian relief effort in
    Burundi is characterized by repeated shortfalls in
    donor pledges and lack of access to the beneficiary
    population because of insecurity. The UN has shown
    that it can respond to this catastrophe when it
    supplied Burundi with an emergency supply of free
    malarial medication last year. Much more of this kind
    of emergency aid will need to be coordinated to
    alleviate the humanitarian impact of the current
    seasonal disasters.

    Many international NGO personnel interviewed by RI
    spoke of their confidence in the current security in
    the Northeast provinces, although they note that risks
    and restrictions still exist. Those interviewed stated
    that, unlike several months ago, they can now run
    their programs in the Northeast in safety, setting an
    example for humanitarian access that might later apply
    to the whole country. In order to assure the continued
    safety of beneficiaries, NGOs that run feeding centers
    should make sure that the distribution of
    supplementary food is also cooked and consumed by
    malnourished populations on the spot.

    The UN humanitarian agencies should continue to
    fulfill their obligations to the people of Burundi
    with a campaign geared towards educating the
    beneficiary population, the Burundian government, and
    the rebel groups on international humanitarian
    principles. "The ideal is to be able to explain who
    you are without armed escort," another UN official
    told RI last week. "We are not politicians, we are not
    soldiers, and we have a right to come there, as the
    beneficiary population has rights and needs that we
    are addressing." There are qualified, committed NGOs
    in Burundi willing to accept risks in order to deliver
    humanitarian aid, and they should be backed by a
    strong, clear and consistent UN voice. One way the UN
    can facilitate humanitarian access is through the
    distribution, disbursement and communication of
    international humanitarian principles in the local

    In short, the humanitarian community can and should
    step forward now to respond to these latest natural
    disasters in the Northeast. Responding now would mean
    mitigating the effects of both an epidemic and
    projected failed crops to be harvested in May.


    The Government of Burundi should launch an immediate
    international appeal for the disaster in the

    The UN agencies can maximize their efforts and assist
    their implementing partners by projecting clear,
    consistent communication on humanitarian aid. The UN
    needs to distribute humanitarian principles in the
    local language as is being done by the humanitarian
    aid community in the DRC.

    Source: Refugee International


    KENYA: Corruption bills priority for Kenyan parliament


    President Daniel Arap Moi of Kenya has said African states must work together to meet the challenges posed by globalisation.
    Tuesday, 20 March, 2001, 15:04 GMT
    Face globalisation challenge, says Moi

    President Daniel Arap Moi of Kenya has said African states must work together to meet the challenges posed by globalisation.

    Opening parliament in Nairobi, Mr Moi said African leaders should concentrate on creating a stable political climate for investors rather than wasting time on what he called 'endless wrangles'.

    The President said a new anti-corruption bill would be put before parliament, which would address shortcomings in the existing act.

    Last year, bills to fight corruption were voted down by a combination of opposition parties and rebel members of the ruling party.

    The International Monetary Fund has demanded that Kenya take robust action against corruption before it lifts its suspension of loans to the country.

    From the newsroom of the BBC World Service

    Mozambique's Downward Spiral


    Some fear that Carlos Cardoso's murder might never be fully investigated as 'many more crimes' would be uncovered. It has been more than three months since the assassination of Mozambique's leading investigative journalist, Carlos Cardoso.
    Mozambique's Downward Spiral

    Mail and Guardian (Johannesburg)

    March 23, 2001
    Posted to the web March 22, 2001

    Rehad Desai

    Some fear that Carlos Cardoso's murder might never be fully investigated as 'many more crimes' would be uncovered. It has been more than three months since the assassination of Mozambique's leading investigative journalist, Carlos Cardoso.

    Last week the minister of police announced he had captured the hit men responsible. The announcement was followed shortly by the arrest of those suspected to have ordered the killing: brothers Mamade Abdul Satar and Ayob Abdul Satar and Vincent Ramaya.

    The three suspects had been named in 1998 by investigating attorney Albana Silva, in connection with a $14-million fraud two years earlier involving the parastatal Banco Commercial of Mozambique (BCM). In 1999 Silva narrowly escaped an attempt on his life when his car was riddled with bullets. It was the same method used in Cardoso's murder.

    The case has never come to court. Evidence went missing and essential papers were disorganised.The state attorney's office seems to have botched up the case, with allegations of corruption among some of the attorneys involved, notably Diamantino dos Santos " now on the run, after a warrant was issued for his arrest in January this year.

    Now the state attorney's office claims its case against Ramaya, the Satar brothers and their alleged confederates is back on track. It has taken the state a full three years to piece its case together again. In this time Silva has nearly lost his life and the country's leading journalist has been brutally murdered for repeatedly asking why these men had not been arrested.

    One wonders why it took a murder investigation to have these arrested.

    President Joachim Chissano's son, recently reported as having been arrested for the second time for possession of large amounts of cocaine, is believed to be an acquaintence of the Satar brothers and has regularly been seen at their house in Maputo.

    There are many concerned people in Mozambique convinced that Cardoso's death was a result of his unflinching disregard for those politicians who have enriched themselves from their links with organised crime. He and he alone tested the limits of freedom of expression in this respect. No one was spared criticism when it came to the development of Mozambique and the abuse of power.

    At the time of his death he was investigating why the BCM was short of $110- million. He suspected huge amounts had been given to leading Frelimo figures as loans. An hour before his death he was set to launch the Movement for Peace and Democracy following the death of 80 Renamo prisoners in Monte Puez. He hoped this would form the beginning of a political alternative to Frelimo and other parties.

    Fernando Lima, a leading Mozambican journalist, has written that Cardoso would often state to those close to him that he would not be surprised if he became the victim of a hit.

    Mia Couto, a leading writer with former affiliations to Frelimo, argues that Cardoso's murder will not be investigated, as "many more crimes" would be uncovered. For Couto, "Cardoso's murder is part of a pattern that is part of the wider murder of Mozambique and this is something that cannot be investigated".

    Mozambique's "miracle economic growth and transition to democracy" is extremely superficial. Its growth rates are, firstly, set on an extremely low base of economic activity. The country has no manufacturing to speak of.

    Its democracy is very fragile; the fear of being silenced is very real.

    The fear of losing your job by speaking out is widespread. Part of this is the legacy of a one-party state; more worrying is that it continues for other reasons in the free market economy.

    Access to business opportunities is circumscribed by one's links to one of the several leading families. Cardoso called this recent trend clannic economic development. Such opportunities for Mozambicans usually involve little more than steering applicants through the corridors of state departments, greasing the machinery of the bureaucracy along the way.

    Moreover, democracy does not mean much where the World Bank determines economic policy that has, among other things, led to the destruction of the reemergent cashew industry and the near ruin of the nascent sugar industry through demanding tariffs be decreased. The sugar industry was able to survive because most of its investors were international and the International Monetary Fund therefore backed down on its insistence on removing tariff control.

    Corruption is not only limited to the top of the governmental hierarchy.

    According to Paul Favet, editor of Mozambique News, parents are often forced to pay teachers to ensure their children pass their exams.

    Patients are often forced to pay nurses to ensure that they are serviced adequately in hospital. It is true that government is trying to address this problem through increasing wage levels " but to deal with it at the top would spell the end of Frelimo's rule.

    The newly established Mozambican South African Friendship Society, founded with the assistance of Deputy President Jacob Zuma, cannot allow itself to continue to go along with the rest of the international community in turning a blind eye to the erosion of the moral fabric of Mozambican society. To do so indirectly supports the spiral downward into lawlessness akin to the Wild West of America 150 years ago.

    It seems the country's rapid reintegration into the Southern African and international economy has led to a scramble of those in power or with access to influence for the crumbs from multimillion-dollar investments that are being made from the sale and privatisation of national assets and services.

    Whoever gets in the way, as in America's expansion westward, is likely to face the same fate as Cardoso.

    Rehad Desai is currently directing a documentary on Carlos Cardoso

    NIGERIA: Anglican church condemns corruption


    In a statement by its Primate Peter Akinola and Secretary, Samuel Akinola, the church regarded as the second largest in Nigeria noted that public office holders brazenly display "conspicuous affluence" in contrast to the level of poverty in the country. It said: "Political office holders at federal, state and local government over-provide for themselves, a mass wealth and live in affluence out of public funds".
    The Guardian Online -
    Wednesday, March 21, 2001
    Anglican church condemns corruption, wealth display by office holders

    FROM the pulpit came yesterday a hard knock on the present political leadership for their insatiable thirst for wealth and corruption.

    And for such leadership's failure to provide the citizenry with basic amenities, the Church of Nigeria believes it is sheer sycophancy for any sane person to want a re-election or re-appointment of such political office holders.

    In a statement by its Primate Peter Akinola and Secretary, Samuel Akinola, the church regarded as the second largest in Nigeria noted that public office holders brazenly display "conspicuous affluence" in contrast to the level of poverty in the country.

    It said: "Political office holders at federal, state and local government over-provide for themselves, a mass wealth and live in affluence out of public funds".

    According to the statement, "the apparent inability of the Federal Government to check this dangerous development casts doubt on the seriousness of its anti-corruption and transparency policies".

    All the three tiers of government, it urged, should ensure prompt payment of salaries to civil servants and pensions to retired persons to minimise hardship on their families.

    In the statement after its meeting in the Rivers State capital, Port-Harcourt, the church condemned the clamour by some Nigerians for the present leadership to continue in office.

    "With dismay, we condemn the recent clamour by some Nigerians for some present political leaders to be given automatic second term in office."

    While denouncing the agitation for second term in office, it drew the attention of political leaders to "sizeable" sections of the country that are yet to feel the impact of the present administration on their lives.

    The church, therefore, called on all political office holders to concentrate their efforts on making food and other socio-economic amenities available and affordable to all Nigerians, rather than angling to retain their offices.

    It also urged politicians to promote justice and security and further create jobs for the growing army of unemployed youths to check the social problems in the country, while appealing to them to shun cheap publicity in all their endeavours.

    Besides, it called on the government to devise appropriate strategies to solve irregular fuel supply and its scarcity, as well as give "tangible" reasons to Nigerians on why it wants to deregulate the petroleum industry.

    The statement further called on both federal and state governments to without delay, return schools previously owned by missions and other private proprietors to their original owners.

    Nigerians' Hopes in Elected Leader Fade


    When Nigeria threw off military rule and restored democracy in 1999, the country's newly elected leaders immediately set their sights on eliminating the worst aspects of the old regime. They ended long lines at gasoline stations. They set about shoring up the country's crumbling infrastructure. They went to war on corruption and tried to balance the books.
    Nigerians' Hopes in Elected Leader Fade
    Gas Shortages, Neglected Infrastructure Hark Back to Years of Military Rule

    By Douglas Farah
    Washington Post Foreign Service
    Wednesday, March 21, 2001; Page A23

    LAGOS, Nigeria -- When Nigeria threw off military rule and restored democracy in 1999, the country's newly elected leaders immediately set their sights on eliminating the worst aspects of the old regime. They ended long lines at gasoline stations. They set about shoring up the country's crumbling infrastructure. They went to war on corruption and tried to balance the books.

    Two years later, the gas lines are back. The infrastructure is still a shambles. The latest government budget includes $330 million for a national soccer stadium -- more than will be spent on health or education. And Nigerians are wondering why the promising future is starting to look so much like the dreary past.

    When he took office in May 1999, ending 16 years of corrupt and brutal military rule, President Olusegun Obasanjo, a retired general, raised hopes at home and abroad that he would be able to make the tough choices necessary to revive the economy of Africa's most populous nation. He immediately made funds available to purchase fuel and ended the shortages that, even though Nigeria produces 2 million barrels of oil a day, had forced motorists to wait in long lines and led to massive blackouts, hampering the economy and impeding foreign investment.

    But those hopes have faded. Gasoline lines have reappeared in recent weeks, and the electricity supply is dwindling, largely because politicians and former military leaders are siphoning off the fuel to sell at a 400 percent markup on the black market, according to diplomats, government officials and irate motorists.

    At the same time, Obasanjo not only included the new stadium in his latest budget but also allocated tens of millions of dollars for new jets for himself, the vice president and other senior government officials, and for new office furniture for the government. The planned expenditures contrast sharply with Obasanjo's rhetoric during his first two years in office, much of which was spent globe-trotting to seek relief from Nigeria's $35 billion foreign debt while promising austerity and poverty reduction at home.

    Diplomats and politicians here say Obasanjo and other political leaders are gearing up for elections in 2003. In their efforts to cement political alliances and win over various constituencies, they are allowing this nation of 120 million to slip back to the edge of economic collapse in a budget-busting binge characterized by a refusal to make potentially costly decisions on halting corruption and privatizing the vast, inefficient state-run economy.

    "This is what happens when you start running for reelection two years early: You can't make the tough choices," said a diplomat who follows economics. "You try to give everyone something. It stinks politically."

    Even Obasanjo's critics acknowledge that he inherited an enormous task, taking office with an empty treasury, billions of dollars of debt and an infrastructure that had suffered from decades of neglect. But there is growing concern at home and abroad that he is committing many of the same mistakes that helped Nigeria's military justify its last takeover, in 1983.

    While few say that the now discredited and demoralized military poses a threat to democracy, there is concern that a return to ostentatious government spending and the resulting lack of economic growth will fan the regional, ethnic and religious rivalries that constantly test the strength of the Nigerian federation.

    "People generally are disgusted," said Tunji Braithwaite, a lawyer and former presidential candidate known for his opposition to the military. "Things like the stadium are absolutely a white elephant, with no rational thinking. Corruption is surging, not declining. It is criminal to have gas lines in this country, yet they are growing worse.

    "It is hard to see where this is going to end."

    Nigeria's immense population and prodigious oil production ensure that concern about the country's future extends far beyond its borders. The United States views Nigeria as a vital ally in West Africa, a region beset by conflict in nearby Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea and political instability in Ivory Coast, U.S. officials said. And while the Bush administration has been largely silent on policy toward Africa, Secretary of State Colin L. Powell told the House International Relations Committee this month that "I think we can be sort of proud now as to the start that President Obasanjo has made putting his country back on the right path."

    But a State Department report released this month said Nigeria's economy is "static, with growth still impeded by grossly inadequate infrastructure, endemic corruption and general economic mismanagement. The country's ports, roads, water and power infrastructure are collapsing."

    What economists, analysts and diplomats find especially worrisome is that the government has made so little progress in setting up a viable economic program at a time when oil prices have skyrocketed on the world market, providing millions of dollars in extra revenue.

    "The pervasive corruption so cripples the system it makes it impossible for any solution or formula to work," said Mofia Akobo, a former oil minister who now works as an environmentalist. "What is worse is that Obasanjo appears to be totally unable to deal with the situation. It is a very tricky and dangerous situation for the country."

    Obasanjo recently joked that the fuel supply was "jinxed" and said he could do little to solve the shortages because the legislature had blocked all moves to deregulate the heavily subsidized price of gasoline, making smuggling inside and outside the country extremely profitable.

    Jackson Gaius-Obaseki, director of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corp., said in a report released this week that the fuel crisis was caused by an increase in demand for gasoline coupled with the fact that the nation's four refineries, hobbled by lack of maintenance, were operating at only 31 percent of capacity.

    But gasoline is readily available all over the country. Busy intersections and gas stations are lined with young men openly displaying five-gallon plastic jugs full of fuel -- available for four times the official price of 80 cents a gallon.

    While most gas stations receive a limited amount of fuel to sell at the official price, tankers arrive at night and unload much larger quantities that are then sold on the black market, according to gasoline sellers.

    That is part of what makes people such as Emanuel Seuger so bitter. Waiting in a gasoline line that stretched a least a mile in the southern city of Port Harcourt, Seuger said he blamed the government for the problems.

    "I wait in line every day for at least two hours. Sometimes I lose the whole day or spend the night in line," he said, sitting in the cab of his pickup truck, inching ahead one car length every few minutes. "I blame the government for not being able to fix the problem. We have two refineries in Port Harcourt. How can we not have gasoline? I feel like I'm trapped in hell."

    [Planned weeklong protests against a proposed 50 percent increase in gas prices started yesterday in some of Nigeria's 36 states, and a major rally is planned today in Lagos, the Reuters news agency reported.]

    As for the budget's soccer stadium, Obasanjo has defended building a world-class facility for the nation's premier sport as necessary for the country to host international games. And he has argued that Nigeria's aging fleet of official aircraft endangers the lives of those they transport.

    But economists and international analysts here say the new budget is not only wasteful, it jeopardizes a vital $1 billion emergency standby loan authorized by the International Monetary Fund and seen as crucial to easing Nigeria's constant liquidity crisis. This is because the budget spends far more on projects such as the stadium than the government agreed to when it negotiated the loan.

    "We have an economy that has almost reached its capacity for inefficiency," said one diplomat. "On a positive note, things can't get much worse. But there is nothing I can point to that this government has done to make things better."

    © 2001 The Washington Post Company

    Nyanga Declaration

    Transparency International launches campaign to repatriate Africa’s stolen wealth


    The members of the United Nations should adopt an international treaty to expedite the tracing, recovery and repatriation of wealth stolen from developing countries and transferred abroad, declared the representatives of Transparency International from 11 African countries, following a meeting held in Nyanga, Zimbabwe, on 1-4 March 2001.
    The Nyanga Declaration, released today (the text follows at the end of the press release), calls for “the sealing of all known loopholes, requiring banks to open their books for inspection where there is reasonable cause to suspect illegal activity, and mandatory liquidation and repatriation of assets known to have been corruptly acquired”.

    Last year, Transparency International brought together 11 leading international banks to announce their agreement on the Wolfsberg Anti-Money Laundering Principles. The new guidelines on business conduct in international private banking state: “Bank policy will be to prevent the use of its world-wide operations for criminal purposes. The bank will endeavour to accept only those clients whose source of wealth and funds can be reasonably established to be legitimate.” The principles, signed on October 30, 2000, also deal with the identification and follow-up of unusual or suspicious activities.

    The representatives of Transparency International from 11 African countries expressed their support for the Wolfsberg Principles as “a first step towards stopping the movement of illicit wealth”.

    The Declaration calls upon the Organisation of African Unity to “take a leadership role in representing the interests of Africa with regard to the return of Africa’s stolen wealth wherever it may be found on the globe and, as a first step, should adopt all reasonable measures to prevent the illegal appropriation and transfer of moneys from Africa’s treasuries”.

    The Nyanga Declaration was adopted by representatives of TI from: Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    For further information, please contact:
    John Githongo,
    Executive Director, TI Kenya
    Tel: +254-2 582 841
    Fax: +254-2 583 130
    Email: [email protected]

    Roslyn Hees, Executive Director (Africa)
    Transparency International Secretariat
    Tel: +49 30 3438 2035
    Fax: +49 30 3470 3912
    Email: [email protected]


    We, the representatives of Transparency International in 11 African countries, meeting in Nyanga, Zimbabwe, on 1 – 4 March 2001,

    Affirming the fundamental human right to development of all African peoples;

    Aware of the negative role corruption has played in undermining Africa’s fragile democracies and hindering her people’s efforts to attain sustainable development;

    Noting recent initiatives aimed at creating a just global socio-economic order, including the Jubilee 2000 debt cancellation campaign;

    Aware that an estimated US$ 20-40 billion has over the decades been illegally and corruptly appropriated from some of the world’s poorest countries , most of them in Africa, by politicians, soldiers, businesspersons and other leaders, and kept abroad in form of cash, stocks and bonds, real estate and other assets;

    Persuaded that, with the co-operation of all relevant actors, such illicit wealth is identifiable, traceable and potentially recoverable;

    Noting that the Nigerian government has succeeded in recovering an estimated US$ 750 million illegally appropriated and transferred abroad by the Abacha military regime, but that this is just a tiny fraction of the billions of dollars estimated to have been stolen by that regime;

    Noting further the success of the Jewish Claims Conference in tracing and recovering assets of the Jewish people stolen by the Nazi regime during the 2nd World War;

    Observing that while international law and the laws of many countries provide stringent measures to prevent the laundering of drug money and to trace and recover the proceeds of organised crime, they are completely silent on wealth stolen and illicitly transferred from Africa’s poorest countries;

    Recalling Nigeria’s President Olusegun Obasanjo’s address to the UN General Assembly in September 1999 calling for the creation of an international convention for the repatriation of Africa’s wealth illicitly appropriated and kept abroad;

    Supporting the Wolfsberg Anti-Money Laundering Principles, adopted by 11 major international banks under the auspices of Transparency International on 30 October 2000, as a first step towards stopping the movement of illicit wealth;

    Hereby declare

    1. That it is not only illegal but blatantly immoral that so much wealth stolen from some of the world’s poorest countries is allowed to circulate freely in the economies of some of the world’s wealthiest nations in Europe, the Americas, the Middle East and diverse offshore havens.

    2. That while the call for the cancellation of Third World debt is noble and deserving of full support, it is inherently inconsistent to call for the cancellation of Africa’s debts while much of the money originally lent remains illegally invested or banked in privately held accounts abroad.

    3. That African Chapters of Transparency International shall spearhead an international campaign for the tracing, recovery and repatriation of Africa’s stolen wealth and the formation of a Global Coalition of individuals, Non-Governmental Organisations, Community Based Organisations and other relevant actors to pursue this end.

    4. That the global Transparency International movement should prioritise the recovery of Africa’s stolen wealth in its activities and should show the same leadership it exhibited with regard to the Wolfsberg Principles by calling for and supporting an international legal framework to stop the illegal flow of illicit assets from poor countries and to recover and repatriate corruptly acquired wealth.

    5. That the international community, under the auspices of the United Nations, should as a matter of priority, adopt a treaty to expedite the tracing, recovery and repatriation of wealth stolen from developing countries and transferred abroad, including sealing of all known loopholes, requiring banks to open their books for inspection where there is reasonable cause to suspect illegal activity, and mandatory liquidation and repatriation of assets known to have been corruptly acquired.

    6. That all countries should tighten their banking laws to ensure that moneys illicitly appropriated from African treasuries are not granted safe havens in banks or non-bank financial institutions operating in those countries.

    7. That African representatives of Transparency International should lobby their governments for legislative reform to seal all known loopholes that allow the illegal appropriation of public money from their treasuries and to punish the culprits, as well as to create frameworks for receiving recovered and repatriated moneys.

    8. That the Organisation of African Unity should take a leadership role in representing the interests of Africa with regard to the return of Africa’s stolen wealth wherever it may be found on the globe and, as a first step, should adopt all reasonable measures to prevent the illegal appropriation and transfer of moneys from Africa’s treasuries.

    9. That all international initiatives aimed at the promulgation of a more just global socio-economic order, including campaigns for debt cancellation, should insert into their campaigns an explicit focus on recovering and repatriating assets stolen from developing countries as a necessary condition to the realisation of a more just and fair global community.

    10. That a strategic alliance be formed with all relevant actors from all parts of the world to keep the issue of the recovery and return of illicitly gained wealth at the top of the global agenda.

    Adopted at Nyanga, Zimbabwe, this 4th Day of March 2001.

    Sikaneta Fails to Clear Zambia's Name


    Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services permanent secretary Susan Sikaneta on Friday tried in vain to deny the existence of rampant corruption in government.
    Title: Sikaneta Fails to Clear Zambia's Corrupt Image

    Summary: Lusaka, Mar 19, 2001 (Post of Zambia/All Africa Global Media via COMTEX)-- Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services permanent secretary Susan Sikaneta on Friday tried in vain to deny the existence of rampant corruption in government.

    Source: Africa News Service
    Date: 03/19/2001 14:21
    Price: Free
    Document Size: Short (1 or 2 pages)
    Document ID: FC20010319390000149
    Subject(s): ANS; Bank; Banking; Broadcasting; Community; Crime; Democracy; Executive; Fire; Foundation; Government; Hotel; Housing; Index; Kwacha; Law; Legislation; Media; Money; Nigeria; Politics; Poverty; Property; Salaries; Sales; Supreme Court; University; War; Zambia



    Sikaneta Fails to Clear Zambia's Corrupt Image


    Story Filed: Monday, March 19, 2001 2:21 PM EST

    Lusaka, Mar 19, 2001 (Post of Zambia/All Africa Global Media via COMTEX)-- Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services permanent secretary Susan Sikaneta on Friday tried in vain to deny the existence of rampant corruption in government.

    At a discussion organised by the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) under the theme Underlying Causes of Corruption in Zambian Society at Lusaka's Taj Pamodzi Hotel, Sikaneta came under fire from University of Pretoria lecturer Professor Michelo Hansungule (in picture) whose presentation she had described as raw and exaggerated. Sikaneta questioned the reliability of Prof. Hansungule's criteria in determining whether or not Zambia was a corrupt country, further accusing him of denting the image of Zambia abroad.

    "The problem is that our determination of corruption is not based on concrete and factual data if and where available, but on our own set minds and attitudes, what we think rather than what the reality is on the ground, concretely," Sikaneta said.

    She further accused Prof. Hansungule of jumping to false conclusions by suggesting that some Zambians who were banking their money in Swiss secret accounts were corrupt. "I wish to caution here that we should not jump to conclusions that rich people are corrupt," Sikaneta said. "There are those who are rich who have earned their wealth through hard work and honest and decent means." But Sikaneta failed to give convincing reasons when Prof.

    Hansungule challenged her on why some Zambians were banking in secret accounts which were usually associated with "dirty" money. Prof. Hansungule reminded Sikaneta that secret accounts were as a result of the World War II when people wanted to "hide" their money from the Nazi government and wondered why Zambians should be "hiding" their money in the same accounts when the country was not even at war.

    "When old bones are mentioned, an old man gets affected," Prof. Hansungule said. "People only banked in Swiss secret accounts during the time of war, during World War II. Zambia is not even in a war situation and it's unlikely that Zambia will be at war. How do we explain that some Zambians have become so rich that they can now bank in Swiss secret accounts?" Prof. Hansungule maintained that most rich people from poor countries who banked in these accounts were corrupt.

    He further challenged Sikaneta to justify why there were disparities in terms of the currencies in which different permanent secretaries got their salaries when they were all at the same level. Prof. Hansungule said the differences confirmed the existence of institutionalised corruption in government.

    "Certain public officials such as permanent secretaries are actually paid for in US dollars while others get their money in Kwacha," Prof. Hansungule said. "This only explains institutional corruption through conditions of service which are clearly corrupt." Prof. Hansungule said it was frightening to note that Zambia featured prominently among the most corrupt countries in Transparency International's corruption index. He said despite Zambia being a poor country, corruption was almost at the same level with Nigeria which is considered to be the world's most corrupt nation.

    "Even though it is not Nigeria, the world's number one corrupt country, the fact that a country as poor as Zambia and with such a small population can capture the attention of the international community as a corrupt society speaks volumes of the kind of problem the people in this country are facing," said Prof. Hansungule.

    Integrity Foundation secretary general Dr. Stephen Moyo wondered how Sikaneta could be defending government on corruption when it had failed to account for the loss of US $150 million from cobalt sales. Dr. Moyo wondered why Sikaneta believed there was little corruption in government when it was operating illegal entities like the Presidential Housing Initiative as well as the presidential discretionary fund which he said was only used to corrupt people. Dr. Moyo said most unexplained deaths in Zambia were linked to organised crime which was ultimately linked to corruption. Sikaneta got annoyed when Afronet executive director Ngande Mwanajiti suggested that she speaking out of ignorance.

    "I would like to end by saying what the old man, Super Ken (Dr. Kenneth Kaunda) used to say: 'Let's fight ignorance'," Mwanajiti said. But Sikaneta maintained whatever she said was based on concrete facts. "Mr. Mwanajiti has accused me of being ignorant.

    I would want to say that what I said was from concrete facts," she said. "There must be proof that can be used to benefit all of us." A former ACC employee, Nobert Mumba questioned why certain individuals had property disproportionate to their emoluments. He said as long as such a situation existed, people would be right to believe in the existence of corruption in government.

    "The biggest problem is the proportion of property. Some people were walking, they were crawling a few days ago, where have they got all the property from?" Mumba asked.

    "It's difficult to understand the disproportion of emoluments to property." Mumba called for the restructuring of the ACC to ensure that more powers were given to them. He suggested the scrapping of search warrants so that officers could pounce on suspects without alert.

    Mumba also suggested that ACC director be given more powers so that he could proceed with prosecution without getting clearance from the Director of Public Prosecution who is his junior.

    He said the ACC director was a Supreme Court judge and wondered why he should get instructions from the DPP whether or not to prosecute someone. In his paper, Prof.

    Hansungule said corruption was as a result of personal greed, poverty, lack of democracy and political commitment while some people were born criminals.

    Other causes were blamed on the low rate of success of convictions of cases in the courts of law, complex and discretionary legislation, inadequate procedures and lack of ethical codes of conduct. Prof. Hansungule said corruption had risen because society had patronised it. Sikaneta said corruption would only be fought through fear of the Lord, respecting the law and maintaining order.

    She said the fight would also depend on personal integrity of citizens. "If we cannot be involved in corrupt activities for fear of the Lord, then let us fear the law and maintain order," she said. "The solution also lies in personal integrity." She appealed to the media and the Church to take the lead in the fight against corruption.

    by Webster Malido

    Copyright Post of Zambia. Distributed by All Africa Global Media(

    KEYWORD: Zambia

    Copyright © 2001, Africa News Service, all rights reserved.

    You may now print or save this document.

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    The Public Service Accountability Monitor (an independent research and monitoring unit based at Rhodes University) has criticized the Eastern Cape department of Transport for failing to take effective disciplinary action over a five year period against a senior state accountant who was arrested for allegedly attempting to defraud the department of R950000 in 1996.
    The Public Service Accountability Monitor (an independent research and monitoring unit based at Rhodes University) has criticized the Eastern Cape
    department of Transport for failing to take effective disciplinary action over a five year period against a senior state accountant who was arrested for allegedly attempting to defraud the department of R950000 in 1996.

    According to court documents obtained by the PSAM, Ms Nomathansanqa Sokutu
    was arrested and charged with fraud in the Zwelitsha Regional Court on 1 June 1996. She was then released on bail of R5000 on 19 August. The case against Ms Sokutu was subsequently withdrawn on 25 November 1996. The case docket could not be located.

    Ms Sokutu is still currently employed by the department of Transport in Bisho as a senior state accountant. After 5 years she has yet to be charged with misconduct and to appear before a departmental disciplinary hearing.

    In an interview with the head of department, Mr Zola Gebeda, the PSAM has
    said that the Transport department can ill afford to allow cases of alleged fraud involving its officials to go uninvestigated given its history of weak financial management. Between 1996 and 1999 the Auditor-General has said that R766, 468 million in funds allocated to the department could not be adequately accounted for by its senior management.

    Mr Gebeda has assured the PSAM that he is currently attempting to establish
    what happened to
    the criminal and internal disciplinary investigations into the case.

    The PSAM routinely awards scores to those key officials responsible for
    handling cases of
    corruption and maladministration in government departments. These scores are
    based on their
    compliance with prescribed regulations and codes of conduct. The Eastern
    Cape MEC for
    Transport at the time of this incident was Dr Tertius Delport (the current
    Democratic Alliance
    spokesperson on Justice). His performance is scored 0 out of 10.

    Between the end of 1996 and March 2001 Mrs Mandisa Marasha (the current
    deputy Speaker of
    the Eastern Cape Legislature), Mr Thobile Mhlahlo and Mr Dennis Neer have
    all served as MEC
    responsible for Transport in the Eastern Cape. All of the above have been
    awarded a score of 0
    out of 10.

    The head of the department during the above period, Mr Vanguard Mkosana, has
    also been
    awarded a score of 0 out of 10. The Financial Manager for the department, Mr
    Nelson Tom, has
    been awarded a score of 1 out of 10 for his handling of the case.

    For the full details of this case, including transcripts and audio of the
    PSAM's interview with the
    head of department, please visit click Current Cases and
    then click

    SOUTH AFRICA: Top cop accused of extortion quits


    Top cop accused of extortion quits. One of Durban's top policemen resigned this week after allegedly being caught attempting to extort R10 000 from a city doctor.


    23:16 Sunday 25 March 2001


    March 22, 2001

    Top cop accused of extortion quits

    One of Durban's top policemen resigned this week after allegedly being caught attempting to extort R10 000 from a city doctor



    The resignation of Superintendent Christie Marimuthu comes days after he was arrested by members of the police anti-corruption unit and formally charged with extortion.
    Marimuthu had allegedly called a Durban doctor into his office and demanded cash in exchange for dropping an investigation into his affairs. The detective, who was given the task of investigating organised crime, had allegedly discovered the doctor had submitted a dodgy insurance claim after household goods had been stolen from his home.

    The doctor claimed he needed to withdraw the cash and returned soon after with the money. However, he brought the anti-corruption unit in tow. The unit set up a sting operation and monitored the alleged exchange of cash.

    At the time of his arrest Marimuthu was facing several disciplinary charges. Last year police discovered a hijacked car on his property. Questioned by members of the serious and violent crimes unit, Marimuthu claimed the car belonged to his son. He was not charged but it was the second time a missing vehicle had been recovered on his property within six months.

    Top cops linked to hijackings, theft ring October 28, 2000
    Cop monitoring needs serious rethink August 24, 2000

    Mail the editor
    Visit the Talk Back Forum

    Police instituted a disciplinary hearing against Marimuthu on charges of misconduct. However, now that he has resigned from the police, the hearing will not be held and Marimuthu will walk away with a considerable pension.

    Marimuthu was not available for comment at his palatial home north of Durban. According to men on his property who would not identify themselves, he was "out of town on business".

    Over the years Marimuthu has been the subject of several police investigations - all of which have failed. The top detective had allegedly been fingered by police informers for numerous crimes - including the theft and hijacking of shipping containers from Durban harbour.

    One investigation focusing on Marimuthu that was handled by the organised crime unit was nicknamed Operation Jamal, after a potent laxative that grows wild in Durban. The former head of the unit, Piet Meyer, is reputed to have chosen the name as he "wanted Marimuthu to shit himself".

    Ironically, Meyer was himself in the dock this week. He is accused of having taken a king's ransom in bribes from illegal casino operations in the province, of protecting drug lords and members of biker gangs, and of stealing from the police by falsely claiming reward money for informers who never existed.

    This week the Durban Magistrate's Court heard that Meyer paid cash for various large purchases, including a 4x4 that was financed by bundles of cash he took out of a plastic bag.

    -- The Mail&Guardian, March 22, 2001.

    Material on the Daily Mail&Guardian site may not be republished without permission



    The dilemma of developing Africa!


    One dilemma that continues to puzzle development workers in Africa is how to get rural communities to participate in identifying their collective problems, analyzing them, ranking / prioritizing and generally initiating and managing sustainable projects with a high chance of solving these problems both in the short and long term.

    One dilemma that continues to puzzle development
    workers in Africa is how to get rural communities to
    participate in identifying their collective problems,
    analyzing them, ranking / prioritizing and generally
    initiating and managing sustainable projects with a
    high chance of solving these problems both in the
    short and long term.

    While it is generally agreed that peoples
    participation is of paramount importance in
    accelerating and facilitating development, it is now
    starting to emerge that participation alone cannot
    work. There is need to put development in the wider
    social-economic and political realities of the
    communities involved. It is noteworthy that over 70%
    of development workers in Africa either do not bother
    to understand this reality, or have no linkages with
    the sources of this information. The other difficult
    part has been getting rural communities to break with
    the age old tradition of dependence on hand-outs which
    was created either during or after colonial occupation

    As we enter into the new century and millennium,
    sub-Saharan Africa is rife with poverty, malnutrition,
    hunger and starvation, HIV/Aids and unpreceded
    environmental degradation. Poverty is today growing
    faster than the population and the continent has never
    been in short supply of resources. Prospects appear
    bleak in a land of abundant promise. The continent is
    muddling through, ill prepared to cope with the
    awesome task of dealing simultaneously with short-term
    problems and laying a foundation for sustainable
    development at the same time. Disillusionment has
    been growing and is spreading like a plague invading
    the spirits of the few struggling development workers.

    Participatory Community Development, which has shown
    great promise in solving the continents problems,
    soon ran out of resources and became an academic
    affair. Those who were promoting it did not have the
    patience to wait and see what could come out of it.

    SACRED-Africa, an NGO whose mission is to work with
    rural farmers to build a better Africa by facilitating
    increased agricultural production, food security and
    income while protecting and enhancing the environment
    has been using participatory community training
    research and development approaches. In this paper,
    Dr. E. J. Mukhwana, the Director of SACRED-Africa
    shares his and other organizations experiences about
    the opportunities, challenges and the way forward for
    sustainably facilitating development in Africa and
    integrating the continent into the rest of the world.
    This is considered a mission impossible by many
    people, but it is arguably the only way in which real
    peace and reconciliation will prevail and prosper in
    this world.


    The primary cause of Africas problems is a complex
    web of internal and eternal factors rather than a
    single reason such as colonialism, lack of technology,
    corruption, exploitative economic policies, poor
    leadership, wars, etc.

    In the first place, the pieces of land that call
    themselves countries in Africa did not decide to be
    what they are out of their own choice. Somebody
    somewhere (Berlin Conference in 1884) sat down and
    decided that different tribes come together to form
    Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe, etc. In the process, enemies
    and friends were herded together and expected to form
    a country with a common vision, aspiration and sense
    of belonging. Unfortunately before the arrival of
    Europeans (over a century ago) in some of these
    countries, some tribes had never heard of the other
    tribes that they later joined to form a country, leave
    alone seeing them.

    >From this reality, it became obvious that this
    confusion needed a central working force to make
    people work and live together, although up to today,
    as we enter the new millennium, some tribes have never
    accepted their neighbours and inter-tribal fights in
    some places are the order of the day. The central
    force soon became dictatorship, as the poor fellows
    who were being led did not know what to expect out of
    a government  they had never seen any of this type in
    their lives. We are talking about only 100 years ago.
    Africans had just started learning how to read and
    write, seeing vehicles and a white man for the first
    time and a host of other confusing technologies such
    as telephones, roads, electricity, towns, new crops
    and livestock varieties usually as a preserve of the
    white settlers. And to confuse it all, modern
    centralized governments are introduced. The few who
    had ready books and had some exposure naturally
    admired and wanted to acquire the new technologies.

    They soon wanted to be in power, and indeed because of
    several pertinent problems, were able to get the
    people to demand for Independence. But, what
    independence? Anyhow, it was granted in many
    situations to people (read Presidents0 who had not
    even led a village. However, it soon became clear,
    that left on their own, there wasnt much that
    Africans could do. They needed information,
    technology and some prescriptions from the North.
    Indeed most countries, which became independent, only
    did so comestically, as they continued relying on the
    former colony on everything.

    They soon became dependent on it, (the way a child
    gets used to the mothers breast) since in a way it
    was beneficial. After all, somebody was paying for
    these technologies and it never bothered them very
    much. Indeed (assuming that the North was higher up
    and Africa further down) these things (funds, loans,
    prescriptions, technologies etc) were flowing with aid
    of the force of gravity. To sum it all, a lot was
    poured and people started to see the light and
    became Christians, modern farmers, started to speak
    English, Germany, French, Portuguese, name it.

    Then came, the green revolution, the sure way for
    everybody to have enough food. Fertilizer, chemicals,
    certified seeds, tractors, combine harvesters etc.
    were poured down the same gradient and naturally
    things started to improve. As they ate the food,
    they got energy to multiply (and the population grew
    too fast), and were able to supply the European and
    other western markets with the much needed coffee,
    tea, cocoa, palm oil and bananas and it was all very
    nice especially now that the most dangerous diseases
    such as polio, TB etc. had been contained.

    And, there were enough government subsidies supporting
    importation and use of more of these inputs.
    Agricultural research and extension teams were well
    funded, well paid and well equipped. Hospitals had
    drugs, factories were being put up and it seemed, at
    least to everybody that the much needed development
    was on its way to Africa and why not. Co-operative
    societies were formed to help the farmers market their
    produce and government corporations came in handy to
    try and maximize the use of the new technologies and
    make money for the governments. Nobody complained.
    Farmers made some money, although the educated, the
    rich and those close to the ruling class made the best
    out of the situation.

    This led at the local level to economic
    differentiation which in turn led to social
    differentiation and segregation. Those who had made
    enough money out of the situation became wise men and
    women and soon became MPs (leaders). These were seen
    as development conscious people who had not only
    brought themselves and their families out of poverty,
    but also seemed to have the greatest potential to help
    the communities and countries achieve development,
    which was increasingly becoming elusive. There
    were promises of water for all by the year 2000,
    Health for all by the year 2000, Electricity for all
    by the year 2000. Today, in most sub-Saharan
    countries, less than 20% of the people have access to
    these services, and the situation is only getting
    worse. It has been a case of driving forward in
    reverse gear for far too long.

    There was much song and dance as the local people
    drunk their traditional beer, celebrated and enjoyed.
    As this was happening, infrastructure in our urban and
    rural areas was becoming extinct. Potholes on the
    roads were increasing, there were growing mountains of
    garbage, rivers of sewage started flowing
    continuously, slums were on the increase and so was

    The divide between the Soviet Union and the USA was a
    good lubricant, efficiently oiling the system and
    maintaining the status quo. Nobody had the courage to
    question our leaders the way things were going. Donor
    funds and loans were flowing and prosperity was
    assured. National holidays were celebrated with much
    vigor and those outside the ruling class increasingly
    fought to come in.

    Those who had made enough money and were within the
    system often quarreled among themselves. There were
    coups and there were numerous changes in the Chairs
    of the heads of states. That was their business, as
    the masses that were being ruled did not understand
    what some of those things meant. Somehow, they always
    celebrated the changes, as things mostly got worse,
    but what could one do? What all those in power needed
    to do was align themselves with America and dollars
    would flow. If America questions too much
    (theoretically), they move off and support the Soviet
    Union, so the Super powers and their associates were
    better off closing their eyes and ears to bad things
    and in return get support.

    Then things came down crumbling, and the Soviet Union
    was no more. Soon the reality started to rain on
    unprepared Africans. Now prescriptions had to have
    strict orders to be followed. It was like a blanket
    that you have been covering yourself with on a cold
    winter evening has been suddenly taken away after an
    electricity blackout. You have to account for this,
    and if you need that, you have to pay for it! Good
    enough, but we even dont know how to account. We
    never knew the prices of some of these technologies
    and could never have afforded them anyway! Nobody was
    being begged anymore, after all if you do not agree to
    the terms and conditions, where else do you go?
    Previously, nobody bothered about how aid and loans
    were spend in the name of developing Africa.

    Then all over the place, there were words like SAPS,
    Liberalization, Privatization, Multiparty democracy,
    Globalization, Sustainability, peoples participation,
    human rights and empowerment which found new meaning
    in Africa. Ask my mother, (English which is the
    official language, has remained elusive to her just
    like the other 40% or so of other Kenyans) what
    liberalization is and she will never tell. So she
    will never understand what we are talking about in the
    name of helping her.

    There has been a new awakening; a new challenge and
    all these things need time, patience and resources,
    which have only been dwindling faster. African
    markets were not prepared for the new reality and
    naturally, things have only got worse. You cannot
    participate on an empty stomach and the confusion of
    what all these has brought will never be understood.
    All over the place, poverty is on the increase, and
    everything is simply getting worse. When multiparty
    democracy was introduced close to 10 years ago in much
    of sub-Saharan Africa, there was pomp and celebration.
    Rural folks were told that all their problems would
    be over. But what a lie?!

    All these have led to de-humanizing poverty.
    Everybody is blaming another and our friends from the
    North have taken off. Who is not familiar with the
    begging hands of Africans? Those who arrive on the
    continent for the first time, treat Africans as human
    beings until the reality starts to reign. Begging,
    begging all over, until, if you have to stay much
    longer, you form a very solid cocoon around yourself
    and have nothing to do with these people. Does any of
    us understand why these fellows, turn their visitors
    into stones at such short notice? The reality is that
    some of them will soon be becoming extinct. They are
    dying of ailments that would cost US$1. Today,
    rampant poverty, misery, disillusionment and aguish
    await you in every village in sub-Saharan Africa.
    There is retrenchment, rightsizing and downsizing in
    every sector from manufacturing to agriculture,
    health, social services etc. Nothing really works any
    more. We are talking of less than 10% of the
    population which is in formal employment (supporting
    90%) and these are being laid off. Can there be
    peace, reconciliation in the minds of such people?
    But, who is prepared to hammer the last nail to the
    African coffin?

    Luckily, Africans are jovial people and cannot commit
    suicide when things get really bad. Already, over 50%
    of the population in sub-Saharan Africa live below the
    poverty line and as one friend of mine put it, even
    if the whole heavens rained down on Africans, things
    can only get worse:. Sub-Saharan Africa with only 10%
    of the Worlds population has 70% of all HIV/Aids
    patients in the world. How else would you describe
    such a situation? A HOPELESS CONTINENT INDEED!


    Africas dwindling harvests of food crops and the loss
    of markets for some of its traditional export crops
    represent a tragedy in a land of unlimited
    agricultural potential. The continent is full of
    hardworking people with a thirst for education,
    healthy babies, technologies and a good life like any
    other community. Many countries of Africa have good
    potential to produce enough food for themselves and
    their neighbours and enough cash crops to meet the
    demand of a substantial proportion of the globes

    But, Africas vast agricultural potential still
    remains idle. Taping this potential is the challenge
    for all of us. Africa needs information, technology,
    investments, political commitment, good policies and
    institutional support. Since two thirds of the people
    in Africa derive their livelihoods from agriculture,
    it follows that effective support to this sector is
    the only basis for the way forward. We can airlift
    all the emergency food relief to the continent that we
    have in our possession. But, by age and large, a way
    must be found in which Africa can produce its own
    food, to meet its increasing demand. We must strive
    to get Agriculture moving in Africa.

    Many development models have been experimented in
    Africa. For each one of them, we moved 2 steps
    forward and 4 steps back. Since the introduction of
    Participatory Community Development approaches more
    than 10 years ago, there have been many direct and
    indirect benefits. There have also been problems.
    All these need to be tackled in a systematic and
    holistic way  because it is the only way in which
    African communities have been made to discover,
    analyze and own their problems. To me, this is the
    most important thing that has happened in the last
    decade. This is the final wake-up call to the human
    race to take an interest in what is happening in this
    continent  to help restore dignity and enable the
    continents population put some food before their
    eyes; because this is the beginning of everything

    IMF: US$112 Million PRGF for Ethiopia


    The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved in principle a three-year arrangement for Ethiopia under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF)1 for SDR 87 million (about US$112 million) to support the government's 2000/01-2002/03 economic program.
    Press Release No. 01/11
    March 20, 2001 International Monetary Fund
    700 19th Street, NW
    Washington, D.C. 20431 USA

    The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund
    (IMF) approved in principle a three-year arrangement
    for Ethiopia under the Poverty Reduction and Growth
    Facility (PRGF)1 for SDR 87 million (about US$112
    million) to support the government's 2000/01-2002/03
    economic program.

    A final decision by the Executive Board is pending
    discussion of Ethiopia's interim Poverty Reduction
    Strategy Paper (PRSP) by the World Bank's Executive
    Board, which is expected today. A final decision will
    enable the release of a first loan under the PRGF
    arrangement in an amount equivalent to SDR 17.4
    million (about US$22 million) immediately.

    In commenting on the Executive Board's discussion,
    Shigemitsu Sugisaki, Deputy Managing Director and
    Acting Chairman, said:

    "The authorities' medium-term framework for
    macroeconomic stability within a comprehensive interim
    Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) provides a
    sound basis for development of a full PRSP, for Fund
    concessional assistance, and for moving toward a
    decision point under the enhanced HIPC Initiative. The
    interim PRSP seeks to promote rapid, broad-based, and
    equitable growth. Preparations for a full PRSP are
    underway and a key challenge is to broaden the policy
    dialogue to include all stakeholders.

    "The PRGF-supported program for 2000/01 sets
    realistic, albeit ambitious, objectives to achieve
    higher GDP growth, contain inflation, and rebuild
    international reserves. These are essential to foster
    sustained poverty reduction over the long term. The
    central reforms under the program will focus on public
    finances and the financial sector. Most important will
    be the reorientation of spending from defense toward
    poverty alleviation, and maintaining a durable peace.

    "To attain the program objectives, it will be crucial
    for the authorities to maintain public finances on a
    sustainable path, improve monetary management and the
    functioning of financial markets, and carry out
    structural reformsnotably to improve governance,
    transparency, accountability, and public sector

    "Ethiopia's eligibility for debt relief under the
    enhanced HIPC Initiative has been endorsed in
    principle. A final decision on the timing of the
    decision point and the granting of interim relief will
    be taken later this year once Ethiopia has established
    a performance record under the new PRGF, and made
    further progress on the preparation of a full PRSP in
    close consultation with social partners," Mr. Sugisaki


    Program Summary

    Ethiopia's progress with market-oriented reforms
    during the 1996/97-98/99 program was notable, although
    uneven. However, adverse external circumstances and
    the border conflict with Eritrea increasingly hampered
    the government's efforts to consolidate stabilization
    gains. In 1999/2000, Ethiopia's economic situation
    deteriorated sharply as a result of severe drought, a
    major worsening of its terms of trade associated with
    lower coffee export prices and the steep rise in
    petroleum import prices, as well as the impact of the
    border conflict.

    In the second half of 2000, Ethiopia resumed its
    economic reform efforts after considerable progress
    had been made toward restoring peaceful conditions
    with Eritrea. The government reconfirmed and updated
    its development strategy formulated in the mid-1990s
    in the second five-year National Development Program
    (NDP). Its mid-term economic strategy focuses on
    poverty reduction by fostering rural development,
    expanding and improving a comprehensive food security
    program, and building conditions for high and
    sustainable growth. The first annual program envisages
    real GDP growth rates of 7-8 percent in
    2000/01-2001/02 and seeks to maintain consumer price
    inflation close to 5 percent. The external current
    account deficit is expected to decline initially only
    modestly from 7.5 percent of GDP in 1999/2000 to about
    6 percent a year in 2000/01 and 2001/02 before
    resuming a downward trend, starting with a deficit of
    5 percent of GDP in 2002/03.

    In the immediate period ahead, the government's
    strategy is to reconcile the country's security needs
    with the requirement to finance both the emergency
    programs for reconstruction and demobilization and to
    improve priority public services, all within a
    sustainable fiscal framework. For the next three
    years, fiscal policy's two main objectives are to
    redirect resources from defense-related expenditures
    toward poverty-reducing outlays (while addressing the
    country's post-conflict recovery needs), and to lay
    the foundation for strong tax revenue mobilization.
    The government envisages that a rapid recovery in
    nonmilitary core expenditure would accelerate
    investment spending. Overall expenditure is targeted
    to decline by 5 percentage points of GDP during the
    program period to 28 percent in 2002/03. The revenue
    strategy calls for an increase in tax revenue of 2.5
    percentage points during the three-year period. Tax
    policy reforms will focus on streamlining income
    taxes, improving the efficiency of the incentive
    system, and strengthening indirect taxation. These
    actions would culminate in the introduction of a
    value-added tax in January 2003.

    Monetary policy attaches high priority to keeping
    inflation in the low single digits. Progress in fiscal
    consolidation, supported by substantial disbursements
    of foreign aid, would allow for adequate growth in
    domestic credit to the private sector, which, in turn,
    would set the stage for private sector-led growth and
    facilitate the rebuilding of international reserves.
    The net domestic assets of the national bank would be
    the key aggregate in steering monetary policy, but
    developments in other monetary aggregates would also
    be followed closely.

    The structural reforms under the program focus on
    financial and external sector reforms in addition to
    capacity building, and judicial and civil reforms. The
    government's plans for comprehensive financial sector
    reforms aim at modernizing monetary management;
    improving interbank operations; strengthening the
    soundness of smaller banks; and upgrading the
    management of the largest state-owned bank, the
    Commercial Bank of Ethiopia. The country's integration
    into the global economy will be fostered by taking
    mutually reinforcing steps to further liberalize the
    foreign trade and exchange regimes, allow market
    determination of the exchange rate, and promote export
    development. Balance of payments projections assume a
    reversal of the recently unfavorable conditions.
    Renewed reform policies and the expeditious
    post-conflict reconstruction and reintegration efforts
    should lead to growing investor confidence and
    sustained foreign support.

    Any external borrowing during the program period will
    be contracted only at highly concessional terms, with
    the goal of keeping the external debt burden
    manageable. In the immediate post-conflict period, the
    debt burden (after traditional relief mechanisms) will
    rise by 2002/03 to 266 percent of exports of goods and
    nonfactor services (net present value terms) from 243
    percent in 1999/2000, because of the immediate large
    external borrowing needs. Subsequently, the debt ratio
    would decline to 179 percent by 2009/10 and to an
    average of 129 percent during 2010/11-2019/20. Given
    the highly concessional borrowing terms, the
    debt-service ratio (under traditional debt-relief
    mechanisms) would fall from 19 percent in 1999/2000 to
    15 percent in 2002/03, to 9 percent by 2009/10, and to
    an average of 7.5 percent during 2010/11-2019/20. The
    program assumes that the interim HIPC Initiative debt
    relief would allow a gradual increase in the
    government's poverty-targeted spending of US$46
    million (0.7 percent of GDP) in the second fiscal year
    and US$77 million (1.1 percent of GDP) in the third
    fiscal year. HIPC Initiative debt relief is critical
    for allowing the needed expansion in poverty-targeted

    In the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, the
    government outlined the main elements of its existing
    poverty reduction strategy, which centers around
    promoting economic growth and increasing the
    income-earning capacity for the poor. Within one year,
    the government is expected to complete the formulation
    of a broad overall poverty reduction strategy with the
    participation of elected officials, civil society,
    nongovernmental organizations, and development

    Ethiopia became a member of the IMF on December 27,
    1945. Its quota2 is SDR 133.7 million (about US$172
    million), and its outstanding use of IMF credit
    currently totals SDR 59.14 million (about US$76

    Source: Read Ethiopia: Selected Economic and Financial
    Indicators, 1995/96-2002/03 1/



    "It is within the capacity of the countries concerned and the international community to eliminate famine and tackle food insecurity in the Horn of Africa," says the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) at the start of a meeting of donors on the Horn of Africa initiative.
    OFFICE FOR AFRICA, ACCRA - TEL. 675000/7010930



    Rome, 22 March 2001.- "It is within the capacity of the countries
    concerned and the international community to eliminate famine and tackle
    food insecurity in the Horn of Africa," says the UN Food and Agriculture
    Organization (FAO) at the start of a meeting of donors on the Horn of Africa

    The FAO is actively participating in a UN inter-agency Task Force
    initiative launched by the Secretary General, Kofi Annan, just a year ago to
    eliminate food insecurity in the Horn of Africa.

    The World Bank has convened this two-day donor meeting, hosted by
    FAO, and attended by representatives from other UN agencies, delegates from
    OECD countries, the European Union, some African countries and officials
    from the African Development Bank and the Intergovernmental Authority on
    Development (IGAD). It is chaired by Hans Binswanger, Director of the
    Environmental, Rural, and Social Development Department of the African
    region at the World Bank.

    The purpose of the meeting is to reach agreement on a follow-up
    mechanism for the implementation of the Task Force strategy and to obtain
    indications of funding. When the Task Force report was presented to the UN
    Secretary General, it was agreed that the World Bank should be responsible
    for resource mobilisation.

    "Both multilateral and bilateral donors need to pledge long-term
    funding in support of national efforts to end famine and food insecurity at
    a level that is commensurate with the scale of the problem. In addition to
    traditional mechanisms such as soft loan or grant-funded projects and sector
    programmes, this will require a longer-term commitment on the part of donors
    as well as innovative funding mechanisms allowing greater responsiveness to
    local-level initiatives," according to the UN inter-agency Task Force.

    A final report by the Task Force on what needs to be done to improve
    food conditions in this region underlines that "it is essential to secure
    the commitment of governments, regional organizations, UN agencies, donors
    and civil society, all of whom have key roles in translating common policies
    into concrete and concerted action."

    At the national level, governments must assume full responsibility
    for eliminating food insecurity by ensuring such conditions as good
    governance, health and education services and their people's empowerment.

    Together with the governments concerned, intergovernmental
    organizations should formulate and implement a Regional Food Security
    Programme (RFSP), encompassing conflict resolution, technical cooperation,
    the promotion of interregional infrastructure development, the fostering of
    trade and the liberalization and harmonization of trade policies, economic
    integration and an integrated early warning system for the region, the Task
    Force report says.

    UN agencies are assisting governments in setting priorities for
    development programmes and formulating investments aimed at achieving food
    security and disaster preparedness and mitigation, in particular in the Horn
    of Africa.

    Each government will need to formulate a Country Food
    Security Programme (CFSP), building on the recommendations of the World Food
    Summit Follow-up Strategies, as well as existing national food security
    initiatives and Poverty Reduction Strategies. The CFSPs will have two main
    thrusts: one to eliminate famine; the other to tackle chronic food
    insecurity. At the World Food Summit, convened by FAO in November 1996,
    Heads of State and Government from 186 countries pledged to reduce by half
    the number of undernourished in the world by 2015.

    One of the main elements of each CFSP should be a programme for
    disaster preparedness and the elimination of famine. Early warning systems
    will need to be restructured so as to give better coverage of pastoral and
    agropastoral areas, and also be linked to regional systems. They should be
    based on active two-way communication between local communities and national
    and international decision-makers. Farmers and pastoralists should be able
    to tell decision-makers when and where their food stocks are running low and
    their cattle are dying, while international agencies, who have access to
    meteorological forecasts, should ensure that this information is delivered
    rapidly to local communities.

    The immediate focus would be on enhancing the livelihoods of small
    resource-poor farmers, through a combination of agricultural technologies
    and support services, access to markets and credit, along with rural
    enterprises and agroprocessing. Such farmers, as well as pastoralists
    inhabiting the arid and semi-arid parts of the region, and the urban food
    insecure, are the principal targets of the programme.

    For those in the highland areas, for example, this will mean making
    better use of water by adopting small-scale irrigation techniques, building
    on the experience of FAO's Special Programme for Food Security. In the drier
    areas, on the other hand, the focus is likely to be more on the promotion of
    drought-resistant crops as well as the conservation of both soil and water.
    At the same time farmers should seek to diversify their sources of income,
    rearing more short-cycle livestock, taking advantage of non-timber forest
    products and, in some places, developing ecotourism.

    The CFSPs will need substantial funding. Much of this can come
    through conventional channels of bilateral grants and concessional loans but
    it will also be necessary to create new, decentralized mechanisms to offer
    community-based initiatives more direct and flexible access to funds.


    For further information, please call FAO media relations branch tel.:
    For an up-date on the work of the Task Force, visit the ACC Network web site

    Health & HIV/AIDS

    Cape Town surgeon implants South Africa's first artificial heart


    Willie Koen, head of the transplant unit and the 'Berlin Heart' Surgeons at a Cape Town hospital implanted an artificial heart into the chest of a man who was rushed into their unit after cardiac failure last night.
    March 18, 2001

    Willie Koen, head of the transplant unit and the 'Berlin Heart'
    Surgeons at a Cape Town hospital implanted an artificial heart into
    the chest of a man who was rushed into their unit after cardiac fail-
    ure last night. The operation, the first of its kind ever to be car-
    ried out in South Africa, was performed at the City Park Hospital by
    a 10-member team led by Willie Koen, the transplant unit head. Koen
    said the patient, a 60-year-old male was "looking fantastic" after
    the operation, which started at 10pm yesterday and finished at 8am
    this morning.

    He said the patient's old heart had been left in place within his
    chest and the artificial heart stitched onto it. The man-made heart,
    known as the "Berlin Heart" and developed in Germany over the past 25
    years, is made from polyurethane and has two ventricles.

    "I left the patient's old heart which was almost non-functioning in
    place so I had something on to which I could stitch the artificial
    heart," Koen said. "Leaving it in place also means there is no space
    left in the chest cavity which could fill up with blood."

    The Berlin Heart is a "totally artificial heart" and not an assist
    pump. There were patients in Germany who were still alive two years
    after receiving the artificial heart. However, in these cases, doc-
    tors said they would eventually put in a transplant heart from a do-

    Up until quite recently, the technique of implanting an artificial
    heart had been experimental, doctors said. Koen said the device is
    driven by an external pneumatic compressor, connected to the artifi-
    cial heart by means of a tube.

    "The patient will be on the main compressor initially but will later
    move onto a device, about the size of a car battery, which is mobile
    and can be pulled behind on a small cart," Koen said.

    The City Park Hospital's Heart Transplant Unit is understood to be
    the biggest unit of its kind in South Africa and the only one capable
    of carrying out an artificial implant of this kind.

    Contributions to Guidelines for Reproductive Health


    The School of Human Genetics and Population Health (SOHGAPH) Kolkata along with Gana Unnayan Parshad (GUP) Kolkata, India is coming up with a new manual called 'Guidelines for Facilitators and Grass Root Workers in Reproductive/Sexual Health Projects of the Third World'.
    The School of Human Genetics and Population Health (SOHGAPH) Kolkata
    along with Gana Unnayan Parshad (GUP) Kolkata, India is coming up
    with a new manual called 'Guidelines for Facilitators and Grass Root
    Workers in Reproductive/Sexual Health Projects of the Third World'.
    This will be comprised of two volumes. Part-I on 'Suggested steps of
    conducting a Reproductive Health project'; Part-II on 'Technical Ca-
    pacity Building'.

    The methods will quote newer initiatives in community research, which
    have made such projects outstandingly successful. We invite contribu-
    tions from organizations working in the Third World countries espe-
    cially in community research to submit their novel experiences / ini-
    tiatives. A directory at the end will acknowledge such contributions.

    Any new initiative coming under any of the following components of
    reproductive health are welcome:
    1. Prevention and Management of Unwanted Pregnancies
    2. Safe Motherhood
    3. Child Survival
    4. Adolescent Health
    5. Reproductive Tract Infections and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    (including HIV/AIDS)
    6. Gender and Sex Education and Counselling
    7. Nutritional Services

    Please e-mail all entries with the main text as an attachment to:

    Dr. S. Chatterjee
    Secretary, SOHGAPH
    <[email protected]>

    <[email protected]>

    Dateline Health Nigeria No. 12, March 20, 2001


    DATELINE HEALTH NIGERIA is a health communication initiative of the Centre for Health Policy and Strategic Studies (CHPSS), Lagos, Nigeria. Critical comments on format, quality and content are welcome.
    . NBC bans condom ads.
    . The offensive AIDS jingle.
    . Aids cure claimants' demand stalls clinical trial of
    . Nigeria needs divine guidance to tackle poverty,
    says Tallen.
    . Obasanjo removes tariffs on malaria insecticides.
    . Nigerian Society for the Prevention of Thrombosis,
    . African Heart Foundation Network holds conference.
    . Embassy repatriates 18 child-trafficking victims
    monthly, says envoy.


    The National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) has banned
    the broadcasting of condom commercials on radio and
    television, stating that such advertisements were
    offensive to public feeling. In a statement issued
    Monday, NBC directed all broadcast stations to stop
    the condom commercials as packaged by Society for
    Family Health. The statement signed by Mr. Ladan
    Salihu, NBC's Assistant Director said: " The adverts
    clearly contravenes the code of advertising practice
    as well as section 7.2.5 of the broadcasting code
    which states clearly that no advertisement should
    contain any item likely to be offensive to public
    feeling. or disrespectful to human dignity. "After due
    consultation with the Advertising Practitioners'
    Council of Nigeria (APCON), the commission hereby
    directs all broadcast stations to discontinue
    forthwith the broadcast of the AIDS prevention and
    condom commercials as packaged by the Society for
    Family Health."

    Source: Vanguard, March 14 2001, Cross-posted from
    [email protected] Keywords: Nigeria.
    Anti-HIV/AIDS campaign. Condom promotion. Reproductive


    A radio jingle on AIDS prevention is currently running
    on our radio station in Lagos. Sponsored by the
    Federal Ministry of Health and the Society for Family
    Health, the jingle encourages free sex amongst youths
    rather than preventing them from catching the AIDS
    virus. As a concerned parent, I must urge the
    authorities to put a stop to this jingle or move it to
    late hour broadcast. Let me describe how the jingle is
    crafted. Two voices played Angela and Johny who are
    clearly intimate boyfriend and girlfriend wanting to
    have sex. With seductive voices, both actors discuss
    the efficacy of a condom in the act for preventing the
    AIDS virus. Listeners are left in no doubt that these
    two lovebirds eventually performed the "SAFE" act
    after the dialogue - of course, with the use of
    condom. This jingle is most immoral, insensitive and
    unnecessary. It should be stopped from running
    forthwith or moved to a time when only adults are
    meant to be listening to radio. In the first instance,
    as good friends, these two lovebirds should trust each
    other to be totally faithful. Besides this, the fact
    that the target audience is youths presupposes that
    the campaign should have encouraged total abstinence
    rather than encouraging free sex as it does. If we are
    serious as parents and concerned about the proper
    upbringing of our children, this promotion of
    immorality should not be allowed to last the next one
    minute on our radio. The jingle is put out in the
    morning hours while kinds are getting ready to go to
    school or maybe on their way to school - riding in
    buses or private vehicle. Given the seductive nature
    of the jingle, this is the most insensitive time to
    broadcast such lustful campaign as it is capable of
    luring innocent youths to sexual escapades with the
    hope that the almighty condom provides the needed
    protection. This is sickening. No right thinking
    parent will feel comfortable having children listen to
    this licentious advertisement

    Source: The Guardian, Thursday, March 8, 2001, p.14,
    By Adeyemi Suleiman. Keywords: Nigeria. HIV/AIDS. AIDS
    radio jingle. Condom promotion. Behaviour change
    communication. Adolescent reproductive health. Health


    The House of Representatives Committee on Health has
    explained why clinical trials on HIV/AIDS drugs
    manufactured in Nigeria are yet to commence, blaming
    the delay on the request by the claimants that the
    clinical trials should not be conducted by the
    National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and
    Development (NIPRD) Abuja alone. The claimants want
    the trials to be conducted in conjunction with similar
    institutes. Chairman of the committee,Mr. Willie
    Ogbeide who disclosed this weekend did not however
    mention the names of the institutes but said: "I agree
    with this thinking." According to him "in the meeting
    we had three weeks ago with the claimants and the
    institutes that are going to carry out the clinical
    trials, it was resolved that the Director-General of
    NIPRD should co-ordinate the whole activity and bring
    in all those centres which the claimants want to be
    brought on board. They believe that they would not
    want to put all their eggs in one basket. They
    wouldn't want to depend only on NIPRD. And I agree
    with this thinking", he stressed.

    Source: Vanguard. Monday, March 19, 2001. By:
    Charles Ozoemena. Keywords: Nigeria. HIV/AIDS. Aids
    cure claimants. HIV/AIDS clinical trials.


    Mrs. Pauline Tallen is Nigeria's Minister of State for
    Science and Technology. Hers is the duty to bring
    Nigeria into the technological age for better
    development on all fronts. She recently offered
    insight into her strategies for attaining her job
    objectives: Divine prayers are the answer to ravaging
    corruption, poverty, poor health and underdevelopment
    in Nigeria today she says. She spoke at the
    inauguration of a new church - "Caring Heart
    Ministries" - formed to mobilize Nigerian women to
    pray for the President, government leaders and peoples
    of Nigeria at the Sheraton Hotels and Towers Abuja
    recently. Tallen said the major impediment to the
    countrys progress was corruption which effective
    prayers could solve. "Since this administration has
    taken it upon itself to fight corruption with all
    seriousness, Nigerians should join hands with the
    government. We can succeed in solving this problem
    through effective prayers and living exemplary lives,"
    she stated. She urged parents especially mothers to
    instill the virtues of honesty and transparency in
    their children adding, "This will be a formidable step
    to stem the tide of corruption in our society." She
    also urged religious leaders to work harder at
    propagating the virtues of honesty, accountability and
    love to drive home the messages against corruption and
    moral decadence in the society.

    Source: The Comet.
    March 17, 2001. By. From Ese Awhotu. Keywords:
    Nigeria. Underdevelopment. Poverty alleviation. Faith
    an prayers in poverty alleviation. Advocacy.


    President Olusegun Obasanjo has granted a waiver on
    taxes and tariffs on insecticides for malaria control
    to reduce the cost of malaria treatment in the
    country. According to a Presidential memo, Pres. 87
    dated 02/7/2001 the ministries of Health, Industries,
    Commerce and Finance have been duly informed that
    presidential waiver on taxes and tariff on
    insecticides for malaria control has been granted to
    reduce cost of malaria treatment in the country. The
    Manufacturers Association of Nigeria (MAN) and NACCIMA
    had at various times pleaded for concessions on
    products that positively contribute to poverty
    alleviation and better standard of living in the
    country. It would be recalled that President Obasanjo
    had, late last year, directed the Ministry of Finance
    to hands off and transfer to the Presidency, matters
    of waiver, concessions and duty exemptions.

    Source: Vanguard, Tuesday March 6, 2001 p.9. By Yinka
    Olusanya Keywords: Nigeria. Malaria control. Tariffs
    on insecticides. Waiver on taxes. Poverty alleviation


    The Nigerians Society for the Prevention of Thrombosis
    was formed in Lagos recently. The newly formed body is
    made up of a group of elite doctors from notable
    hospitals in the country. Speaking at the inauguration
    of the society for the prevention and treatment of
    the disease, Mr. Joseph Odumodu, the Managing Director
    of May & Baker Nigeria Plc, , said that thrombosis, a
    frequently fatal medical condition, is a major threat
    to Nigerians. He indicated that the management of
    thrombosis had often been difficult to handle in the
    country. Thrombosis is a condition that causes blood
    clots to block free flow of blood to the heart and
    lungs, leading to stroke or sudden death. It is
    usually characterized by pain and swelling. Risk
    factors for the disease include obesity, prolonged
    immobilization (perhaps due to long distance travel),
    and major surgery that lasts up to 30 or more minutes.
    Other risk factors are pregnancy, cancer, oral
    contraceptive pills; heart failure; myocardial
    infarction and cigarette smoking. Although no reliable
    statistics is available for Nigeria, thrombosis is
    believed by medical experts to be responsible for many
    deaths in the country.

    Source: ThisDay, Friday, March 9, 2001 p. 5 By
    Queeneth Opara. Keywords: Nigeria. Thrombosis. Risk
    factors for thrombosis. Prevention and treatment of
    thrombosis. Medical society. . Health prevention.
    Health promotion.


    African Heart Foundation Network (AHFN) conference
    flagged off in Lagos recently. The theme of the
    conference, which lasted three days is: "Promoting
    Heart Health in Africa". The conference according to
    Professor Oladipo Akinkugbe president of the Nigerian
    Heart Care Foundation, is designed to bring together
    members of National Heart Foundations in Africa, lay
    professionals, scientists, stake-holders and leaders
    in cardiovascular health worldwide. They are expected
    to share experience in heart health and develop action
    agendas towards reducing the burden of heart disease
    and stroke in Africa.

    Source: The Guardian, Thursday March 8, 2001, p.30.
    By:Ben Ukwuoma Keywords: Nigeria. Heart disease.
    Conference. Health Advocacy.


    No fewer than 18 children who are victims of child
    trafficking, are repatriated to the country every
    month from Gabon, according to Nigeria's Ambassador to
    the Central African country, Mr. Ihekaire Ajuru. The
    envoy expressed concern over the high level of the
    illicit trade between Nigeria and Gabon. Ambassador
    Ajuru, who spoke in Owerri during a courtesy visit to
    Governor Achike Udenwa, expressed dismay over the
    problem, adding that majority of the victims, were Imo
    indigenes. Based on this development, the ambassador
    suggested that the government of Imo State should
    establish a transit centre in the state where
    repatriated children could be accommodated and
    rehabilitated prior to their eventual relocation to
    their respective homes. Responding, Governor Udenwa
    condemned child trafficking, describing it as man's
    inhumanity to man. He regretted that such primitive
    trade, most of whose victims are from Imo State, still
    persists despite efforts to stamp it out. Udenwa
    however, vowed to deal ruthlessly with anybody caught
    engaging in the illicit trade. He said government
    would investigate the envoy's compliant with a view to
    eradicating the menace.

    By: Psaro Yornamue. Wednesday,March 7, 2001
    Keywords: Nigeria. Child trafficking.

    DATELINE HEALTH NIGERIA is a health communication
    initiative of the Centre for Health Policy and
    Strategic Studies (CHPSS), Lagos, Nigeria. Critical
    comments on format, quality and content are welcome.

    To subscribe or unsubscribe, mailto:
    [email protected]


    Euro MPs step into South African AIDS drugs battle


    European parliamentarians have passed an emergency resolution calling on 39 pharmaceuticals firms to drop their lawsuit against the South African government over a law aimed at opening the way for cheaper AIDS drug production.

    Global TB Control Report 2001


    The WHO has recently published the Global TB Control Report 2001, showing that only 23% of the world's TB cases are treated in DOTS programmes. The report can be downloaded from our website and is also available in hard copy.


    16 JANUARY 2001, British Medical Association, London


    THEME: Donation and distribution of physical health information materials: books, journals, newsletters, CD-ROMs...
    THEME: Donation and distribution of physical health information materials:
    books, journals, newsletters, CD-ROMs...

    CHAIR: Anthony Costello, Professor of International Child Health at the
    Institute for Child Health, London

    PARTICIPANTS: Representatives of: British Medical Association, BMJ
    Publishing Group, Book Aid International, Commonwealth Secretariat, Health
    Information for Develpment, Health Communications Exchange, Healthlink
    Worldwide, INASP, International Centre for Eye Health, International Health
    Exchange, John Smith & Son, Nature, Nigerian Medical Forum, Nigerian Medical
    Forum, Partnerships in Health Information, Pharmabridge, Healthnet Kenya,
    Strategies for Hope, Teaching-Aids at Low Cost, University College London,
    Wellcome Trust, WHO.

    Email contributions to the meeting:
    1. Graham Icke (Principal Scientist, Royal Perth Hospital, Australia)
    <[email protected]> Has produced and distributed thousands of
    free CD-ROMs (malaria education project). Postal expenses are often more
    than production costs. As many as 25 per cent of CD-ROMs are 'lost in the
    2. Lenny Rhine (Medical Librarian, University of Florida)
    <[email protected]> Asks: (1) How can we inform partnerships
    and/or developing country libraries about the resources of potential donors;
    (2) How can we tie individual parnterships into larger projects?; (3) Is
    there a means of co-ordinating the activities of donor groups?
    3. Matko Marusik (Editor, Croatian Medical Journal) <[email protected]> (1)
    Offers free subscription of CMJ to developing countries; (2) offers
    possibility of publishing HIF proceedings in CMJ.

    1A: Carolyn Sharples, Book Aid International [email protected]
    1B: Rob Sarjant, Book Aid International - delivered on behalf of Nelly
    Williams, [email protected]
    2: Sallie Nicholas, BMA [email protected]

    The following presentations are summaries. Please contact the individual
    speakers if you need further details.


    What do we mean by partnership?

    Book Aid International believes that partnership is based on mutual respect,
    common objectives and a long term commitment to delivering successful

    Providing health information is a key objective, therefore we actively seek
    partnerships which will help to deliver health information to a large number
    of people:

    We have three main types of partner:

    1. Ongoing large distributing partners who have a role in the local context
    to target information to a range of organisations.

    2. Ongoing partners, such as health colleges which have a pivotal role in
    providing health training or care, and need a continuos supply of specific

    3. We also receive a number of requests from organisations which have highly
    specialised needs.

    So how do we decide where we work and who with?

    Book Aid International's work must fit with local development objectives, no
    matter how valuable we see our work we will only work where we are invited
    to work, either by government or by recognised marginalised groups. We try
    to work with the existing infrastructure and why many of our partners are
    national bodies.

    There are a large number of organisations in countries throughout the world
    who ask us to provide books. We cannot possibly work with all of them, nor
    would it be appropriate to do so. Our criteria policy, currently under
    review, uses indicators such as low HDI, low income countries, language and
    local infrastructure.

    Our partners need to be committed to the programme. They are responsible for
    local decisions and together we work to raise funds and develop the
    programme. Partners have to be able to provide information on needs,
    monitoring information and evaluation as part of the relationship.

    Distribution models

    A basic organisational belief which guides the development of our programmes
    is the desire to reach the greatest number of people with the information we
    send. So whilst we recognise that individuals have specific needs we also
    recognise that it is not always practical to meet these needs directly. The
    only example where we send books which will be used by individual doctors
    and pharmacists is the PHARMAID scheme to send British National Formularies.

    In Ghana and Nigeria we have distribution committees. These bring together
    key information providers who oversee the distribution of books, monitor and
    evaluate the programmes and direct the future development of the programme.

    Direct support

    In some countries it is not possible, nor practical to develop a
    distribution committee approach. In Palestine there are political and
    logistical constraints, such as the barriers to travel and specialist needs
    which make it impossible to have a the same approach as we do in Ghana. So
    in Palestine we send specific cases of books via the British Council, to
    specific organisations such as the Medical Relief Society.

    I think what all this illustrates is the need to fit with the local context
    and not to fit a generic model to all situations.


    BAI is a small organisation and we ship over 700,000 good quality books and
    journals a year. About 45,000 of these are medical.

    1. Acquiring the right books

    Firstly, we need to acquire the right stock. To help achieve this, we have
    developed criteria for book donations. Books for donation must be in good
    condition, relevant to our partners' needs, and within 10 years of
    publication date - and for medical donations, to ensure the information is
    up-to-date, we are a little stricter, and reduce this to 5 years. We only
    accept journals from the last 2 years. We have an Acquisitions team which,
    each year, develops a strategy based on partners' needs so as to target
    publishers and other organisations in key subject areas.

    Medical books and journals come from a variety of sources including
    publishers such as Lipincott, Cambridge University Press and

    Book Buying - we raise money for book purchase in gap areas - especially in
    areas such as basic health material where we get very little in the form of
    donations. Recently, we have bought titles such as Where there is no Doctor
    (one of our most requested books), Where Women have no Doctor, Helping
    Health Workers Learn, the Oxford Handbook of Tropical Medicine, The Aids Handbook, A Book for Midwives, and Community
    Health Care published by AMREF in Kenya.

    2. Selecting the Right Books

    The main selection tool that we use is a subject based requirements form
    which BAI's own librarians use to select appropriate books. The form is
    detailed to make sure subjects and levels are right, and the medical section
    was designed with help from Neil Pakenham-Walsh. Partners also provide
    background information on an application form.

    3. Making Sure the Right Books were sent

    Evaluation forms are sent annually to ongoing partners. Generally, feedback
    is very encouraging.. Recent examples include:

    Mrs Edna Adan Ismail - Director, Edna Adan Maternity Teaching Hospital,
    Hargeisa, Somaliland

    'These books have made our teaching programme distinguished because it has
    enabled our organisation to become the only organisation that has a
    specialised and up-to-date medical library in Somaliland ...... the books
    also opened up a whole new world to our
    students who had never seen a library in their lives before' She added 'We
    have also been able to benefit from your books for the development of
    Somaliland curriculum for training nurses and midwives. This will enable us
    to carry out training in other locations in Somaliland.'

    Whilst the situation in Somaliland may be worse than in many other
    countries, as it tries to rebuild itself, the feedback is not untypical. For
    example, the College of Health Sciences at the University of Nairobi is
    going through difficult times:

    'During the 1990's the library has not managed to buy as many titles as it
    would have liked. Most of the books supplied by BAI were recent publications
    and as such helped us to update our collection'. They added 'The Journals
    are extremely useful since we still have not yet managed to revive our
    annual journal subscription list. Please keep
    this subscription support scheme active'.


    Q: Do you have difficulties with Customs?
    A: This is not as difficult as might be expected. Local partners help with
    customs issues.

    Q: Can students from developing countries while in London go and pick out
    books at Book Aid? A: Yes - this sometimes is possible but in general people
    need to work specifically with partners of Book Aid.

    Q: Do you have opposition from publishers in Developing countries?
    A: The issue is seen as important. Support from the South is good and it is
    not seen as competition to local market.


    Both the BMA and BMJ receive many requests from organisations and
    individuals in developing countries and other areas of need. Until
    recently, both had responded to these on an "ad hoc" basis, but had had no
    formal mechanism for doing so, nor any specific funding. There was a clear
    need for a more coherent system and support from BMA members for
    establishing one. In April 2000, the BMA's Finance and General Purposes
    Committee had approved a recommendation from the Journal Committee that a
    small sum of money be set aside to provide material for developing countries
    and other areas of need. The funds were drawn from the profits of the BMJ
    Publishing Group and the BMA International Committee had political
    responsibility for the administration of the fund.

    The fund was administered on a day-to-day basis by a small steering group,
    including Sallie Nicholas and John Hudson of the BMJ Publishing Group. It
    had drawn up the following mission statement:

    "To provide access to health-related information to appropriate institutions
    in developing countries and other regions in need. Information should be
    relevant, current and of high quality."

    Appropriate institutions might include medical libraries, professional
    bodies and healthcare institutions, the aim being to maximise limited
    resources by ensuring availability to as wide an audience as possible. For
    this reason, it was not possible to respond to requests from individuals.

    In feeling its way forward, the group had faced a number of dilemmas -
    including how to establish the bona fides of applicants, how to involve
    recipients in the choice of materials to ensure their appropriateness and
    how to ensure feedback. It had not advertised the fund, but responded to
    requests from various quarters. So far it had arranged donations to a
    number of Iraqi medical schools, the Nigerian Medical Forum, Hargeisa
    University (Somaliland) and a London-based Refugee Doctor Postgraduate
    Centre - this last donation being consistent with the BMA's work to help
    refugee doctors in re-establishing their careers in the UK. It had also
    arranged a special print run of the ABC of AIDS and Sexual Health for
    distribution by Book Aid International.

    The future approach was likely to be a "two-pronged" one, working with Book
    Aid International with its established networks and expertise, but also
    allowing scope to respond to individual requests.


    Group A: Building partnerships and identifying needs
    1. Interactions between donors, distributors and institutions are important
    2. Personal communications are a priority
    3. Need to register individual organizational needs
    4. Health library partnerships are essential
    5. Need to acknowledge gap between what is available and what is needed
    6. Use of IT for communication

    Group B: Working with donors (eg publishers) to get what is needed
    1. Importance of working with donors directly
    2. Consider donor brokerage so requests don't 'have to make rounds'
    3. Might publishers pay for distribution?
    4. Should Northern publishers be encouraged to sponsor over-runs in
    publication for developing countries?

    Group C: Coordinating distribution (N-N, N-S, S-S)
    1. Coordination of distribution needs to be improved and requires a
    conceptual shift
    2. When material is in the South, how do we know it gets to where it needs
    to be?
    3. Need to strengthen infrastructure for the 'last mile'
    4. More knowledge is needed about what works locally.


    Donated CD-ROMs often get 'lost in the post'.

    If the government is the local distributor for publications, then the
    materials are very unlikely to get to where they are needed. There is a
    need to mix private and public distributors locally.

    Perhaps a common database of available materials should be established among
    donor-distributors to make it easier for Southern institutions to identify
    what is available.

    Perhaps the Millennium Dome in Greenwich could be converted to serve as a
    donation-distribution warehouse!

    The HEALTH INFORMATION FORUM is run as an activity of the INASP-Health Programme.
    Contact Dr Neil Pakenham-Walsh Email: [email protected] Web:
    The WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION headquarters is based in Geneva,
    Switzerland. Email: [email protected] Web:

    Immunization Focus, March 2001


    The March 2001 issue of Immunization Focus, an "e-published" quarterly from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is now available on the GAVI website.

    In this issue:

    Special Feature - First, do no harm: mapping the road to injection

    Grassroots - Introducing hepatitis B vaccine: a practical guide from
    countries that have done it already

    The Idea Exchange - a new section for debates on topical issues. In
    the first contribution, Catriona Waddington, a health economist for
    the UK Department for International Development (one of the donors to
    the Global Fund for Children's Vaccines), asks whether GAVI and na-
    tional governments have got their priorities right, and Tore Godal,
    executive secretary of GAVI, responds.

    News - Hard work ahead: the capacity challenge

    Feel free to download, print and distribute the entire issue, or spe-
    cific articles or excerpts.

    If you have any questions about GAVI or Immunization Focus, please
    write to us: [email protected]
    or at the e-mail addresses below.


    Phyllida Brown, Immunization Focus Editor:[email protected]

    Lisa Jacobs, GAVI Communication Officer:[email protected]

    [email protected]

    Internet access to medical journals


    On 31st January, the New York Times writer Eric Nagourney wrote to 'HIF-net at WHO' for input on how the internet is affecting access to medical journals in developing countries. The resulting article is now available online.

    Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report


    March 21 headlines include:
    * One in Nine South Africans Living With HIV, Government Survey Shows
    * Some Catholic Priests Sexually Abuse Nuns, Sometimes to Avoid HIV
    Infection, Reports Say
    * TAC 'Demands' HIV/AIDS Treatment Plan from South African Government
    Wed, 21 Mar 2001

    * One in Nine South Africans Living With HIV, Government Survey Shows
    * Some Catholic Priests Sexually Abuse Nuns, Sometimes to Avoid HIV
    Infection, Reports Say
    * TAC 'Demands' HIV/AIDS Treatment Plan from South African Government

    One in Nine South Africans Living With HIV, Government Survey Shows
    One in nine South Africans is HIV-positive, up from the previous es-
    timate of one in ten, according to a new survey released yesterday by
    the South African government, the Associated Press reports. The
    study, based on a sampling of 16,000 women at 400 antenatal clinics
    nationwide, estimates that 4.7 million South Africans were HIV-
    positive at the end of 2000, compared to the previous estimate of 4.2
    The rate of infection rose among women ages 20 to 34 and declined
    slightly among women under 20 and those over 35 since 1999. For women
    ages 20 to 24, the rate of infection increased from 25.6% to 29.1%.
    The rate of infection increased among women ages 25 to 29 from 26.4%
    to 30.6% and among women ages 30 to 34 from 21.7% to 23.3%. Infection
    rates among women under 20 years old decreased from 16.5% to 16.1%, a
    finding that was "consistent" with a previous survey that found con-
    dom use is higher among teenagers than among other age groups (Asso-
    ciated Press, 3/20).
    Although the survey reflected a decrease in infection rates among the
    youngest survey group, officials point out that the rates are still
    high and "indicat[e] [prevention] programs have not reached extremely
    effective levels," Dr. Bernhard Scwartlander, a senior epidemiologist
    with UNAIDS, said. The increases in infections among those in their
    twenties demonstrates that "[t]he positive behavior that women start
    adapting in teenaged years is not sustained," Dr. Rose Mulumba, dep-
    uty director of the public health service, said. Health officials be-
    lieve women in their twenties may have a "false sense of security"
    about their infection risk because they are married or in long term
    Reason for Optimism?
    Although some infection rates increased, government officials said
    they were "optimistic that the epidemic might be reaching its peak"
    (Swarns, New York Times, 3/21). "We are no longer seeing the exponen-
    tial increases of earlier years and the flattening of the curve over
    three years begins to suggest that the prevalence of HIV in the popu-
    lation may be stabilizing," Health Minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang
    said (Swindells, Reuters Health, 3/20).
    But the announcement of the figures "dashed the hopes" of AIDS ex-
    perts, who said that the numbers imply that officials were "failing
    to dissuade thousands of young people from engaging in risky sexual
    behavior" (New York Times, 3/21). Demographic experts predict that as
    many as six million South African will die from AIDS-related compli-
    cations by the end of the decade, a toll that threatens to cut the
    country's gross domestic product by 17% and "wipe US$ 22 billion off
    the national economy," Reuters Health reports (Reuters Health, 3/20).
    The percentage of infected adults rose "sharply" in the KwaZulu/Natal
    and Gauteng provinces (New York Times, 3/21).
    Some Catholic Priests Sexually Abuse Nuns, Sometimes to Avoid HIV
    Infection, Reports Say
    Nuns around the world have suffered sexual abuse by priests, some-
    times resulting in pregnancy and abortion, but church leaders have
    "fail[ed] ... to discipline" the clerics involved, the New York Times
    reports. According to five reports written by senior members of
    women's religious orders and a priest, cases of sexual abuse against
    nuns have been reported in at least 23 countries.
    In one report, Sister Maura O'Donohue, a physician and a member of
    the Medical Missionaries of Mary, wrote that women were "forced" by
    priests into sexual liaisons in order to obtain certificates or rec-
    ommendations needed for work in a diocese. O'Donohue also recorded
    cases where nuns were "recommend[ed]" by priests to take contracep-
    tion, sometimes being told that oral contraceptives would prevent the
    transmission of HIV.
    The report included "disturbing" accounts of nuns impregnated by
    priests, including one case in Malawi where 29 sisters in one congre-
    gation became pregnant by priests in the diocese. Another example ex-
    plained the case of a nun who became pregnant by a priest and was
    brought by that priest to a Catholic health institution to undergo an
    abortion. After the nun died during the procedure, the priest per-
    formed her funeral mass, O'Donohue wrote (Hedges, New York Times,
    3/21). The National Catholic Reporter said that "no comprehensive
    statistics" exist on the sexual abuse of nuns, but the "frequency and
    consistency of the reports ... point to a problem that needs to be
    addressed" (AP/Washington Times, 3/21).
    AIDS and Africa
    While the reports documented incidents of abuse in a number of coun-
    tries, much of the abuse was linked to Africa and the continent's
    AIDS epidemic, the New York Times reports. The priests in Africa of-
    ten live in "isolated" areas, and fear contracting HIV from prosti-
    tutes and "other high-risk groups." Many perceive nuns as "safe sex-
    ual partners" who do not carry the virus, the New York Times reports
    (New York Times, 3/21).
    African attitudes toward celibacy and the "tradition of female sub-
    servience" in Africa also contribute to the spread of abuse, the
    AP/Washington Times reports (AP/Washington Times, 3/21). O'Donohue
    said that in some African countries, "priests have a liberal inter-
    pretation of celibacy," adding that one priest once said that celi-
    bacy "in the African context" barred priests from getting married,
    but not from having children (New York Times, 3/21). In Africa,
    priests are often "better educated than the nuns," and sometimes use
    "false theological arguments to persuade them [to have sex], suggest-
    ing, for example, that sex between two celibate religious [people]
    does not violate their vows of celibacy," a report by Sister Marie
    McDonald, superior general of the Missionaries of Our Lady of Africa,
    stated (Willan, London Guardian, 3/21).
    Vatican Response
    The authors of the reports noted that church leaders often failed to
    punish or reprimand priests for incidents of abuse. In her report,
    O'Donohue wrote that while the priests involved in sexual incidents
    were "usually given mild reprimands," the nuns were often "forced out
    of the order." And when one superior general "complained" to an
    archbishop about incidents of sexual abuse, she was replaced.
    Rev. Robert Vitillo, executive director of the United States Bishops
    Campaign for Human Development, wrote in a 1994 report, "I myself
    have heard the tragic stories of religious women who were forced to
    have sex with the local priest or with a spiritual counselor who in-
    sisted that this activity was 'good' for the both of them. Fre-
    quently, attempts to raise these issues with local and international
    church authorities have met with deaf ears" (New York Times, 3/21).
    The Vatican yesterday "acknowledged" the reports, but added that the
    incidents of sexual abuse are "restricted to a certain geographic
    area," without clarification (Reuters/Washington Post, 3/21). Vatican
    spokesperson Joaquin Navarro-Valls said, "Work is being done both on
    the training of people and the resolution of individual cases" (New
    York Times, 3/21). He added, however, that "[s]ome negative cases
    cannot let us forget the often heroic faith expressed by the large
    majority of those men and women in religious orders and of the
    clergy" (Mangan, New York Post, 3/21).
    TAC 'Demands' HIV/AIDS Treatment Plan from South African Government
    The Treatment Action Campaign, a South African AIDS activist group,
    intends to "pressure" the nation's government into creating an
    HIV/AIDS treatment plan this year, TAC Chair Zackie Achmat told SABC
    radio on Monday (WOZA Internet, 3/19). The organization wants the
    government to publish a "comprehensive plan" for providing treatment,
    including a strategy for raising funds from international sources,
    such as the Group of Seven nations, and a "timetable for bringing the
    drugs to public clinics and ensuring they are administered properly"
    (Schoofs, Wall Street Journal, 3/21).
    Achmat's announcement comes a day after the opening of TAC's first
    National Congress in Soweto on Sunday, with 169 organizations regis-
    tered as participants. According to TAC's Web site, "Over the last
    two years, the TAC has built the foundations for a formidable mass
    movement to fight for access to treatment. ... With political will
    and a united front the obstacles to treatment access and decent
    health care for all people can be overcome. The TAC's first National
    Congress will provide an opportunity for civil society to pave the
    way forward to affordable treatment for all."
    Speaking about TAC's application to be a Friend of the Court at the
    side of the government in the lawsuit filed by 39 pharmaceutical com-
    panies against the country over drug patent rights, Achmat said, "Our
    role is a supportive one, but also one of advocacy. We support gov-
    ernment for wanting to create a framework that will address the unac-
    countability of the pharmaceutical industry" (Harvey, WOZA Internet,
    3/19). Before TAC was formed, "few if any" organizations in South Af-
    rica "championed treating the country's HIV patients with the anti-
    retroviral drugs" that have significantly reduced mortality rates
    from AIDS in developing nations. TAC is also currently working with
    the government on implementing a "treatment literacy campaign" to
    help educate patients about drug therapies (Wall Street Journal,
    The Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report is published for,
    a free service of The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, by National
    Journal Group Inc. c 2001 by National Journal Group Inc. and Kaiser
    Family Foundation. All rights reserved.

    Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report: Editorials Address Need for Assistance

    Editorials Address Need for Assistance from Developed World to Fight


    Several newspaper editorials this week have addressed the price reductions and patent relaxations on AIDS drugs by Merck & Co. and Bristol-Myers Squibb, as well as the need for developed nations of the world to offer more humanitarian aid to African nations in order to assure the purchase, distribution andmonitoring of such drugs.
    Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report: Editorials Address Need for Assistance
    Editorials Address Need for Assistance from Developed World to Fight
    AIDS in Africa

    Several newspaper editorials this week have addressed the price re-
    ductions and patent relaxations on AIDS drugs by Merck & Co. and
    Bristol-Myers Squibb, as well as the need for developed nations of
    the world to offer more humanitarian aid to African nations in order
    to assure the purchase, distribution and monitoring of such drugs.
    Excerpts of several of the editorials follow:

    * Philadelphia Inquirer:
    "[T]he world community (with the United States leading the way) must
    bring other weapons [in the fight against AIDS] to bear: money and
    expertise," a Philadelphia Inquirer editorial states. The "maddening
    aspect" of the current situation is that the drug discounts recently
    offered are "still beyond the reach of impoverished African govern-
    ments and individuals," the editorial continues, adding that what is
    needed now is money to fund the purchase of the drugs in order to
    stem the "humanitarian crisis" in Africa. The editorial calls on
    President Bush to allocate more money for the issue when he presents
    his federal budget proposal next month. The budget "ought to reflect
    Americans' humane and generous spirit," the editorial continues. The
    budget "ought to be bold in dedicating additional foreign aid to buy-
    ing AIDS drugs and developing health care systems that can administer
    them," the editorial concludes (Philadelphia Inquirer, 3/21).

    * Boston Globe:
    "[T]he solid front of pharmaceutical companies against allowing
    cheap, generic versions of their AIDS drugs into Africa is cracking.
    This is a welcome development, but genuine hope ... requires more
    help from industrialized countries and a greater leadership role by
    local governments," an editorial in the Boston Globe states. The edi-
    torial singles out Brazil as an example of how the use of low-cost
    generic drugs works to save money and reduce the death rate from
    AIDS-related complications. Brazil has benefitted not only from its
    better economic status and its ability to create or buy generic
    drugs, but also from the "crucial" leadership of its current leader
    and his predecessor, the editorial states. For Africa to have the
    same success, it needs "financial assistance" from the industrialized
    world. Donors should also "require" recipients to establish protocols
    to "ensure" that the drugs are properly distributed and administered.
    With such an effort, the "world finally has a chance to curb the epi-
    demic in Africa," the editorial concludes (Boston Globe, 3/22).

    * Providence Journal:
    "AIDS is a special case," a Providence Journal editorial states, add-
    ing that the disease's "devastation demands a broad humanitarian re-
    sponse." And although drug discounts and cheaper generic drug offer-
    ings sound "very promising," the lower prices are "still beyond the
    means of most Africans." Therefore, financial support from govern-
    ments, donors and charities is "essential" to buy drugs and train
    people how to use them. Otherwise, the crisis some have labeled "an
    international health scandal ... [equivalent to] mass murder" will
    continue, the editorial concludes (Providence Journal, 3/22).

    * Milwaukee Journal Sentinel:
    AIDS is "not just a humanitarian disaster, nor is it an African prob-
    lem alone," an editorial in the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel states.
    According to a January 2000 National Intelligence Estimate, AIDS and
    other infectious diseases "will complicate U.S. and global security
    over the next 20 years. These diseases will endanger U.S. citizens at
    home and abroad, threaten U.S. armed forces deployed overseas and ex-
    acerbate social and political instability in key countries and re-
    gions in which the United States has significant interests." Based on
    this information, "[f]or reasons of self-interest, as well as for
    compelling moral ones, the United States and other countries should
    pitch in and help," the editorial concludes (Milwaukee Journal Senti-
    nel, 3/18).

    * New Haven Register:
    "The rest of the world has largely stood by as AIDS has decimated Af-
    rican nations," a New Haven Register editorial states, adding, "But
    the immediacy of Africa's plight was brought home recently because of
    drug companies' refusal to yield patent rights on AIDS drugs." The
    editorial continues, "The scope of poverty and government dysfunction
    in Africa is so vast that even humanitarian acts like [the recent
    discounts] of Bristol-Myers and Merck will have little impact." Advo-
    cacy groups and charities must continue to "turn the spotlight of
    public attention" on AIDS, as a group of Yale University law students
    and Doctors Without Borders have done. Otherwise, a "generation in
    Africa is doomed," the editorial concludes (New Haven Register,

    The Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report is published for,
    a free service of The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, by National
    Journal Group Inc. c 2001 by National Journal Group Inc. and Kaiser
    Family Foundation. All rights reserved.
    Cecilia Snyder
    <[email protected]>



    The Access Campaign is implementing an initiative consisting in gathering as many signatures as possible to protest the lawsuit lodged by 39 pharmaceutical companies against the Government of South Africa's recently approved legislation to render essential drugs affordable.
    The Access Campaign is implementing an initiative consisting in
    gathering as many signatures as possible to protest the lawsuit lodged by 39 pharmaceutical companies against the Government of South Africa's recently approved legislation to render essential drugs affordable.

    Signatures are gathered through the MSF websites. The Communication
    Department has decided to send e-mails to friends, colleagues, institutions, organisations and others, to let people know the problem South Africa is facing and gather as many signatures a possible thus condemning the lawsuit lodged by the companies.

    Here below, you will find the text included in the e-mails being sent,
    explaining the problem as well as the Campaign.
    Support the Campaign by sending this text to all your contacts thus enabling us to gather more signatures.

    Log into (MSF Spain) or (MSF International) to cast your vote.

    Thank you all for your collaboration.

    Communications Department TEXT:
    In South Africa, one out of five adults is infected with HIV/AIDS.
    Currently, over 4 million people live with this disease. In the meantime, 39 pharmaceutical companies have sued the South African Government for having passed a legislation favouring the access of its population to more affordable essential drugs.

    The case will be heard on April 18th next.


    Vision is needed to address problem of global health


    On 4th January this year, Peter Singer posted an article on 'HIF-net at WHO' on the subject of 'Global Alliance for Health Information'. The following letter is from this week's BMJ (17 March) under the title 'Vision is needed to address problem of global health information'.
    On 4th January this year, Peter Singer posted an
    article on 'HIF-net at WHO' on the subject of 'Global Alliance for Health Information'. The following letter is from this week's BMJ (17 March) under the title 'Vision is needed to address problem of global health information'

    If the problem were a new opera house for Sydney, we would hold a competition for architects to show their designs. These designs are visions of the future. Similarly, vision is what we need now to address the problem of global health information.

    Pakenham-Walsh notes that international agencies, non-governmental organisations, publishers, libraries, training schools, and others all are seeking to improve access to information for healthcare workers.[1]
    Collectively they bring a wealth of skills, but their overall effectiveness has been limited by, ironically, lack of communication. Tan-Torres Edejer observes that the long list of initiatives is impressive but asks whether
    any effort has been been made to get them to work synergistically.[2] That role, she says, is most appropriate for the nations themselves with the
    cooperation of international organisations and donor agencies. We now need a vision for how these organisations might work together, and to what end. The
    global health information problem is so complex and formidable - far more so than the Sydney opera housethat providing a focused, realistic vision would
    make a useful contribution. Without a vision, effective action will be impossible. As the saying goes, "If you don't know where you are going, any wind will take you there." A coherent vision would provide focus for debate,
    and motivate subsequent concerted action on the part of key players.

    Godlee et al identify two key criteria by which such a vision should be judged sustainability and multidirectionality of information flow (for
    example, flow not only from developed to developing countries but also from developing to developed countries and perhaps most importantly among developing countries themselves).[3] They are also right to suggest that the
    global inequities of health information are part of the problem of global inequities in health, arguably the most important ethical problem in the world. [4] The next step towards a solution is to provide a vision of a global alliance for health information.

    Peter A Singer, director.
    University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, Toronto, Canada M5G-1L4
    [email protected]
    Competing interests: PS is the author of an article containing a vision of a
    global alliance for health information.

    1. Pakenham-Walsh N. Improving access to reliable information in developing
    countries. BMJ 2000; 321: 831 (30 September.)
    2. Tan-Torres Edejer T. Disseminating health information to developing
    countries: the role of the internet. BMJ 2000; 321: 797-800 (30 September.)
    3. Godlee F, Horton R, Smith R. Global information flow. BMJ 2000; 321:
    776-777 (30 September.)
    4. Singer PA. Medical ethics. BMJ 2000; 321: 282-285

    [HIF-net at WHO profile: Peter Singer is Sun Life Chair and Director of the
    University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics; Professor of Medicine,
    University of Toronto; Canadian Institutes of Health Research Investigator;
    and Associate Editor of the Canadian Medical Association Journal. He is a
    leading proponent of free access to biomedical information. Examples of his
    work in this area include
    <[email protected]>']

    Contact: <[email protected]>




    COSATU welcomes the launch of the South African Democracy Education Trust. We believe that this initiative is an important step toward recording the history of our people's history struggle for freedom. It must form part of an urgent process to ensure that our country's real history is taught in the schools.
    COSATU Calls for the Urgent Introduction of People's History in
    the Schools

    COSATU welcomes the launch of the South African Democracy
    Trust. We believe that this initiative is an important step toward
    recording the history of our people's history struggle for freedom.
    must form part of an urgent process to ensure that our country's
    history is taught in the schools.

    The way we pass on our history must make a connection
    between our
    future generations and the heroes who wrote the Freedom
    endured the Treason and Rivonia trials, led the 1972 Durban
    who led the 1976 Uprising and suffered the state terror from the
    mid-1980s to the early 1990s. Only this continuity can ensure the
    maintenance of our ideals as the basis for transforming our
    society to
    benefit the majority of our people.

    Unfortunately, there has not been a decisive change in the
    history curriculum. Until 1994, the history taught our children
    glorified the invasion and exploitation of our country. It denied and
    denigrated the struggle of the liberation movement for freedom for
    South Africans.

    We cannot continue to wait until the full overhaul of the
    before we transform the way we teach history to our children.
    we must accelerate the development and introduction of new
    and teacher training to give a balanced and truthful account of our

    The history taught in the past glorified the apartheid values of
    division and oppression. The current Zulu programme playing on
    SABC 3
    typifies this. Our new curriculum must, instead, build solidarity
    among our youth. It must free our understanding of the past from
    prejudice and distortion. Only by retelling our long and arduous
    historic journey to freedom and seeing ourselves in terms of that
    inheritance, can we come to understand who we are and what
    we should
    do for ourselves. This must help us realise our dream of a non
    non sexist democratic and a free South Africa.

    Siphiwe Mgcina (Publicity Officer)
    Congress of South African Trade Unions

    Tel: +27 11 339-4911/24
    Fax: +27 11 339-2281/5080/6940
    Cell: 082 821 7456
    E-mail: [email protected]

    [email protected]

    Speakeasy Stuttering Association of South Africa (Speakeasy SA)


    Holds regular monthly self-help group meetings, in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth & Potchefstroom. If you stutter or have a family member or friend who stutters and would like to join a self-help group near you, please contact the Speakeasy National Office for details on 011 883 0292 or email.

    Racism & xenophobia


    Institute of Race Relations publishes new report


    Two years after Macpherson reported into the handling of the Stephen Lawrence case, the Institute of Race Relations reports that racial violence is becoming more serious and prevalent. Nineteen people have lost their lives in the UK in racially motivated attacks since February 1999. Increasingly, serious racial violence is being perpetrated against members of newly-arrived and asylum- seeker communities. Despite the fact that half of Macpherson's recommendations were about racial violence, especially how the police and Crown Prosecution Service should act over such cases, families of victims remain dissatisfied with the lack of will to take such racism seriously. Commissioned for London Boroughs Grants - a funder for London's voluntary sector - this report, Counting the cost, suggests that, although most voluntary groups are beginning to tackle the ways their personnel and structures contribute to an inadvertent racism, in line with Macpherson's definition of 'institutional racism', they have yet to meet the challenge of racial violence. Advocacy and support from community groups, concludes the report can, "transform a case into an issue. And the issue, in turn, can influence the policy agenda."

    UN calls for new efforts in anti-racism fight


    The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson, has called on the World Conference Against Racism - to be held in South Africa later this year - to come-up with practical ways to make a "seminal difference" in the fight against racism and xenophobia around the world.

    UN recruitment clouded by race bias claims


    Most United Nations staff from Europe and North America were offered higher-level jobs at the time of their recruitment than their counterparts from Asia, Africa and Latin America, says a new report by a UN working group.



    Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania (in French)


    Fresh outcry over West African pipeline


    The World Bank has admitted providing technical support for a controversial West African gas pipeline prompting an outcry from local environmentalists over its backing of potentially damaging energy projects.

    Greenpeace International founder dies in car crash


    David McTaggart, the founder of Greenpeace International, was killed Friday
    in a head-on car crash on a country road in central Italy. He was 68.
    Friday, March 23, 2001 (AP)
    Greenpeace International founder dies in car crash

    (03-23) 12:27 PST ROME (AP) -- David McTaggart, the
    founder of Greenpeace International, was killed Friday
    in a head-on car crash on a country road in central
    Italy. He was 68.
    Police said McTaggart was alone in his car. The
    driver of the other car also died and his wife was
    injured, police said. The accident happened in
    Umbria, about 20 miles from Perugia.
    McTaggart had lived in Italy for many years.
    He galvanized the international environmental
    movement in 1972 when he sailed his small boat into a
    French nuclear-testing site at Mururoa atoll in the
    South Pacific.
    He went on to stir up support throughout Europe for
    Greenpeace, forging an alliance in 1979 among separate
    factions of the organization and uniting them under
    his chairmanship as Greenpeace International. He was
    chairman until 1991.
    "He was the last medieval knight, capable of great
    symbolic acts for the environmental cause," said
    Gianfranco Bologna, a spokesman in Italy for the World
    Wildlife Fund.
    Grazia Francescato, president of the Italian Green
    Party, called McTaggart "a figure of extraordinary
    force" and "an example for all of us."
    McTaggart, sometimes dubbed "the shadow warrior,"
    was "a very difficult person because he was extremely
    stubborn, extremely tough," said David Newmann,
    ex-director of Greenpeace Italy, adding he was "a
    person of enormous courage and determination."
    Born in Vancouver, British Columbia, McTaggart
    worked in the construction business for 20 years, then
    moved to the United States in the 1960s where
    he became a successful contractor and developer.
    He retired after an explosion destroyed a resort
    his firm had built and sailed the Pacific for
    pleasure. In 1971 he became outraged with the
    French government's decision to cordon off a vast
    swath of international waters in the Pacific for
    nuclear tests.
    McTaggart was also a driving force behind
    Greenpeace campaigns to save the whales, to stop the
    dumping of nuclear waste in the ocean, to block the
    production of toxic wastes, to end nuclear testing,
    and to protect the Antarctic continent from oil and
    mineral exploitation.
    There was no immediate information on survivors or
    funeral arrangements.

    CANDICE HUGHES, Associated Press Writer
    Copyright 2001 AP

    Integrated Water Resource Management Workshop


    In recent years, interest in integrated water resource management (IWRM) has risen significantly throughout the world due to the increasing demands placed on such a limited natural resource. Integrated Water Resource Management Workshop October 15-19, 2001 Denver, Colorado, USA
    Integrated Water Resource Management Workshop
    October 15-19, 2001
    Denver, Colorado, USA

    In recent years, interest in integrated water resource
    management (IWRM) has risen significantly throughout
    the world due to the increasing demands placed on such
    a limited natural resource.

    This Workshop will review and analyze recent
    developments in integrated water resource management
    and tools. The speakers* will be experts from the U.S.
    Bureau of Reclamation and specialists from other water
    resource management entities who will provide a
    comprehensive overview of IWRM theory and techniques
    with discussion on policies and practical management
    issues -- from river basin level to individual water
    resource projects.

    Discussion will focus on assessing and dealing with
    competing demands imposed on a limited water resource
    and, at the project level, means to better promote
    their efficient operation, maintenance, and management
    for multiple purposes including irrigated agriculture,
    flood control, hydropower, water supply and
    environmental purposes. Specific sessions in the
    Workshop will be devoted to a wide array of topics
    including IWRM theory, data collection, water quality,
    water conservation, drought management, adaptive
    management, decision support systems, and conflict

    The U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of
    Reclamation is responsible for the proper operation,
    maintenance and structural safety of more than 300
    dams and distribution systems throughout the western
    United States. Reclamation has trained over 10,000
    technical and administrative officials from other
    domestic and international agencies. Reclamation is
    regarded throughout the world as a preeminent water
    resource management agency.

    Practical application of integrated water resource
    management will be emphasized. Open discussions will
    be encouraged.

    Workshop Objectives:

    . To provide an overview of system-wide planning
    and managementpractices.
    . To evaluate inter-organizational cooperation and

    to demonstrate actual procedures, facilities and

    techniques used in integrated water resource

    Who Should Attend:
    The Workshop is designed for policy-makers, managers,
    and administrators who will be or are now working in
    the planning, operation, maintenance, and management
    of water distribution systems. The Workshop will be
    beneficial for experienced managers, as well as new
    managers who are involved in the operation,
    maintenance, and management of water systems.

    All presentations, discussions and printed materials
    will be in the English language. Participants should
    have a good command of general and technical English

    Costs and Registration:
    The registration fee is US$1500 for each participant.
    Registration fee payment should accompany the
    registration form. Checks should be in U.S. dollars
    and made payable to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.
    Wire transfer payments are acceptable. If paying by
    wire transfer, the following information must
    accompany your payment:

    Bank: Treasury New York City
    ABA: 021030004
    ALC: 14060905
    Reference: A1R-1465-8530-002-01-0-0
    A"Second Integrated Water Resource Management

    Registration forms should be received by September 20,
    2001. Registrations received after that date will be
    accepted on a space-available basis only. If a
    participant withdraws from the Workshop, Reclamation
    must be advised of the cancellation no later than
    September 20. If this date is met, all funds will be
    returned. After September 20, 2001, a $200
    cancellation fee will be charged.

    Visit the Workshop site for more info:

    Kenya: State ignores directive on forests


    Surveyors were busy demarcating Hombe Forest in Mt Kenya despite a ruling by the High Court stopping the government from excising 167,000 acres of forest land.

    Source: Wild Forests: [email protected]


    Surveyors were busy demarcating Hombe Forest in Mt
    Kenya yesterday (18 March) despite a ruling by the High Court
    stopping the government from excising 167,000 acres of
    forest land.

    The High Court sitting in Eldoret ordered Mr Nyenze
    last Thursday to stop hiving off forest land in Rift
    Valley and Central provinces.

    Yesterday, however, surveyors continued to survey the
    Hombe Forest at the foot of Mount Kenya, with armed
    police from Kiamariga Police Station keeping guard.

    All the beacons marking the boundaries that residents
    of the neighbouring Sagana Settlement Scheme uprooted
    have been re-erected. They replaced them with branches
    of cedar trees.

    Lady Justice Roselyne Nambuye suspended the minister's
    legal notices in the Kenya Gazette of February 16
    following an application filed under a certificate of
    urgency by environmental advocate Nixon Sifuna.

    Police also arrested the chairman of Sagana Wildlife
    Protection Self Help Group, Mr Gerald Ngatia, who led
    the residents in uprooting the beacons and chasing
    surveyors out of the forest. He was arrested on Friday
    and released after two hours of interrogation at
    Kiganjo Police Station. He also recorded a statement
    and was ordered to report to the station today.

    The surveyors arrived in three government vehicles
    yesterday: two Land Rovers and a Suzuki.

    Following Mr Sifuna's application, the Eastern Mau,
    South Western Mau, Western Mau Nakuru, Nabkoi, Mt
    Kenya, Marmanet, Northern Tinderet, Mt Londian, South
    Nandi, Molo and Kapsaret Forests will remain the
    property of the State until a case to be filed in two
    weeks time is determined by the same court in

    Meanwhile, tension has gripped Hombe Forest as more
    than 600 squatters have threatened to silence those
    opposing the allocations. Squatter families that have
    been residing by the roadside after the government
    evicted them from Mt Kenya and Aberdare forests in
    1989 said those demanding a halt to the surveying of
    the forests are insensitive to their plight.

    Led by Mr James Maina, the squatters threatened to
    unleash terror on farmers at Sagana Settlement Scheme
    who are opposed to the allocation. They staged a
    demonstration in Karatina Town recently. When we
    lived in the forest, there was no logging and the
    forest was safe from environmental destruction, the
    squatters argued. We know where the water catchment
    areas are and no one can tamper with them.

    At the same time, Green Belt Movement Coordinator
    Wangari Maathai has vowed to continue collecting
    signatures for her petition seeking to stop
    Environment Minister Francis Nyenze carrying out the
    excision of forests in Rift Valley and Central
    provinces. She has collected 32,000 signatures so far.
    She was speaking at St Luke's Anglican Church in
    Nairobi yesterday.

    On Saturday, the Catholic Church challenged the
    government to name the squatters it proposes to settle
    on forest land. Archbishop Ndingi Mwana aNzeki said
    the State had a responsibility to protect citizens and
    provide services to them in a transparent manner.

    The High Court in Eldoret last week stopped
    Environment Minister Francis Nyenze from excising
    forests in Rift Valley and Central Provinces.

    The Eastern Mau, South Western Mau, Western Mau,
    Nakuru, Nabkoi, Mt Kenya Marmanet, Northern Tinderet,
    Mt Londiani, South Nandi, Molo and Kapsaret forests
    will remain state property until a case to be filed
    in two weeks time is determined.

    Contact: [email protected]

    Kenya: Who favours and who destroys forest biodiversity?


    Governments should be directly responsible for the conservation of the natural and cultural heritage of their respective countries and people. Nevertheless, what frequently happens in the South is that the authorities act in collusion with powerful internal and external interests, and to the detriment of the country's biodiversity, and thus against the welfare of the population they are supposed to protect. This is what is going on in Kenya.
    Governments should be directly responsible for the
    conservation of the natural and cultural heritage of
    their respective countries and people. Nevertheless,
    what frequently happens in the South is that the
    authorities act in collusion with powerful internal
    and external interests, and to the detriment of the
    country's biodiversity, and thus against the welfare
    of the population they are supposed to protect. This
    is what is going on in Kenya.

    Located in the east coast of Central Africa, Kenya
    holds a variety of landscapes: from tropical
    rainforests in the coastal plains to arid areas in the
    dry west plateau. Such diversity in nature goes
    together with the existence of different ethnic
    groups. Deforestation and desertification are two
    environmental problems severely affecting the country.
    Logging --both legally granted by concessions and
    illegal-- an inadequate policy towards protected
    areas, megaprojects like dams and mining, are all
    putting at risk the rich biodiversity of Kenya. In the
    meantime, the government has not only proved to be
    unable to stop the process, but has also been active
    in promoting it.

    The case of the highland Tinet forest area, inhabited
    from ancestral times by the Ogiek, is a paradigmatic
    example of environmental destruction and disregard to
    indigenous peoples' rights. In spite of having managed

    these forests in a sustainable way, they have been
    forced to defend themselves against the arbitrariness
    of both colonial and post-colonial governments, who
    have ignored them and menaced them to get hold of
    their lands arguing that they are within the
    boundaries of a protected area included in the
    country's Forest Act. Nonetheless it is not a
    preservationist interest what moves the authorities.
    In Kenya there is a logging ban in force but three
    powerful companies --Pan African Paper Mills, Raiply
    Timber, and Timsales Ltd.-- are exempted from it, and
    prepared to enter the Tinet Forests once the Ogiek are
    expelled. Regarding protected areas it seems that the
    authorities have not learnt from past mistakes. In the

    mid-1970s, Massai residents of southern Kenya were
    abruptly relocated from land that was subsequently
    enclosed within the Amboseli National Park, one of the
    continent's most visited wildlife reserves. Deprived
    of their lands and as a desperate way of showing their
    protest, the Massai reacted by killing many of
    Amboseli's most prized tourist attractions, including
    dozens of leopards, elephants, and rhinos. Both the
    fauna and indigenous people suffered as a consequence
    of a mistaken approach with regard to biodiversity

    The announcement made by the government last February
    according to which many areas of forest reserves
    spread all over the country --totalling 67,150
    hectares-- will be left without legal protection
    confirms that there is no clear policy for forest
    biodiversity conservation in Kenya.

    National environmental NGOs gathered in the Greenbelt
    have expressed their intention to present a formal
    objection to the proposed forest excisions, and the
    Kenya Forests Working Group is organizing an
    international campaign to oppose it. Severe droughts
    have affected the Kenyan territory in the last two
    years. Considering the connection existing between
    deforestation and the fall in rainfall patterns, the
    destruction of these forests would aggravate the
    problem and at the same time be detrimental
    to the flora and fauna they are home to.

    Megaprojects constitute another pending menace on the
    country's biodiversity. For example the dam project on
    the Sondu Miriu River, one of the major rivers in the
    Lake Victoria Basin, is threatening local
    biodiversity. Even though the power station is
    scheduled to be operational in 2003, the diversion of
    the river will cause the disruption of the whole
    hydrological basin, with negative consequences on
    wildlife. Rare species, like the Colobus monkeys and
    hippopotamus, which depend on the river for their
    survival will be forced to seek a source of water at
    the lower populous Nyakwere plains disturbing their
    habitat. The government is backing the project and the
    Japan Bank for International Cooperation, together
    with a Norvegian and a South African company are
    giving financial and technical support to it. The NGO
    coalition Africa Waters Network has denounced this
    danger, and at the same time local villagers are
    resisting the project, which would mean the forced
    abandonment of their agricultural lands.

    Last but not least, mangroves situated in the coast
    near Mombasa on the Indian Ocean are in danger because
    of a titanium mining project by a Canadian firm.
    Kenyan organizations gathered in the Coast Mining
    Rights Forum have recently launched an international
    letter campaign, targetting the government and
    financial partners --the World Bank included--
    denouncing the expected effects of mine exploitation
    in the area and demanding its suspension until a
    serious environmental impact assessment is performed.

    In sum: the answer to the question we have posed
    regarding biodiversity conservation in Kenya is clear.
    On one side there are local communities and
    environmental NGOs trying to protect the country's
    biodiversity. On the opposite site there are the
    authorities, transnational companies, international
    banks and "developers", whose actions result in its

    Article based on information from: ;
    Lynette Obare, Forest Action Network, 6/3/2001,
    e-mail: [email protected] ; Nabil El-Khodari,
    27/2/2001, e-mail: [email protected] ; Paula Palmer,
    23/2/2001, e-mail: [email protected] ;
    WildNet, 17/2/2001, e-mail: [email protected]

    Source: World Rainforest Movement, [wrmfriends] WRM
    Bulletin # 44, March 19, 2001 [email protected]

    Kenyan herders protest foot and mouth slaughter


    Cows are central to the lives of the nomadic herdsmen who have been deeply disturbed by news that hundreds of thousands of livestock have been killed in faraway Britain in a bid to stamp out an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.

    Population-Environment Resources Web Page


    Save the Kenyan forests Petition


    The Save the Kenyan forests Petition to The Kenyan Government was created by The Nile Basin Society and written by Nabil El-Khodari. The petition is hosted at as a public service.
    The Save the Kenyan forests Petition to The Kenyan
    Government was created by The Nile Basin Society and
    written by Nabil El-Khodari. The petition is hosted at as a public service. There is
    no express or implied endorsement of this petition by
    Artifice, Inc. or their sponsors.

    Petition posted: March 19, 2001
    Will close: April 9, 2001.
    To: The Kenyan Government
    H.E. Daniel Toroitich arap Moi, President of Kenya
    H.E. Francis Nyenze, Environment Minister

    We are shocked at the media reports that some 68,000
    hectares of remaining indigenous forests, including
    those in part of the Mount Kenya forest reserve, may
    be cleared to settle landless people.

    This is to request that the Kenyan Government obey the
    court orders issued in relation to the Eastern Mau,
    South Western Mau, Western Mau Nakuru, Nabkoi, Mt
    Kenya, Marmanet, Northern Tinderet, Mt Londian, South
    Nandi, Molo and Kapsaret Forests.

    We are dismayed at the reported news that the
    government is ignoring the court orders.

    We also implore you to consider Klaus Toepfers,
    Executive Director of the United Nations Environment
    Programme (UNEP), concerns about the risk of
    increasing deforestation in Kenya.

    As Mr. Klaus Toepfer has stated "Forests are the
    earth's green lungs, helping to remove carbon dioxide
    and other pollutants from the atmosphere. They also
    stabilize soils, reducing the risks of erosion and run
    off into rivers, and are in many cases home to a rich
    variety of wildlife and indigenous, forests dwelling,
    peoples. Forests also provide food, shelter and
    medicines and are a rich source of therapeutic
    compounds from which companies can derive new,
    potential, cures for diseases from Aids to cancer."

    We also request that the Kenyan Government cooperate
    with (rather than intimidate) the local NGOs in
    preserving these national and global treasures.

    Special report on the foot and mouth disease in Europe


    Trade policies need green angle, say officials


    Trade policies need green angle, say officials Government ministers and high-level officials from over 70 countries this week declared that environmental issues should be taken into account during negotiations on new trade agreements.



    Concrete efforts are necessary to provide clean drinking water and improve health as well as to increase awareness world-wide of the problems and of the solutions. 22 March is a unique occasion to remind everybody that solutions are possible. Use the resources on this WHO site to help turn words into political commitment and action.
    Concrete efforts are necessary to provide clean drinking water and improve health as well as to increase awareness world-wide of the problems and of the solutions. 22 March is a unique occasion to remind everybody that solutions are possible. Use the resources on this WHO site to help turn words into political commitment and action.

    Around one sixth of the 6.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved sources of water, while 40% are without access to improved sanitation services (WHO 2000). This theme article explores the human right to water.

    The World Resources Institute in Washington DC has warned that the world's freshwater systems are in peril. It predicts that "by 2025, at least 3.5 billion people or nearly 50 percent of the world's population will face water scarcity."

    News and information, advice, research and training, on low-cost water supply and sanitation in developing countries

    Media & freedom of expression

    24 journalists killed in 2000


    Two dozen journalists were killed in the line of duty last year and 81 serving stiff jail sentences at the end of the year were the apparent victims of retaliation by governments which found their work too inflammatory or embarrassing, according to latest figures from a global press watchdog.

    Government Slaps Advertising Ban On "The Namibian" Newspaper


    Media Institute of Southern Africa (MISA)report that the Namibian government
    has slapped an advertising boycott on "The Namibian" newspaper, claiming the
    newspaper is too critical of its policies, the paper reported on Friday 23
    March 2001.



    Find newspapers and news sites worldwide with quick links to over 600 news sources sorted by region and country.
    MARCH 21, 2001, NEW FEATURES:

    In the first of our new series profiling our affiliates we take a look
    at groups that support youth in making their own creative media.

    As markets misfire and recession threatens, Danny Schechter finds a
    synergy between media's callousness and the U.S. economic downturn.

    Breaking news stories about the media internationally,
    from mainstream and alternative sources.

    Bookmark this! Research tools, interview tips, Web writing guides and
    more. Essential resources for the working journalist.


    The best media on the media…
    * Suing The U.K. Press
    * A Journalist's Murder
    * Lies In The Congo
    And much, much more...

    In failing to verify primary sources the media set off a worldwide
    frenzy over a new invention without knowing what it was or did.

    While U.S. newspapers are stepping up their presence in Colombia
    they’re ignoring what’s really going on in this war-torn
    South American nation.

    * excerpts * reviews * interviews *

    "Primetime Blues," by Donald Bogle.
    "Real Majority, Media Minority," Laura Flanders.
    "Daily News, Eternal Stories," Jack Lule.
    …and many more!

    *Book purchases help support MediaChannel!*

    MediaChannel affiliates offer the latest news and opinion on the
    world's top media stories. This week: Pacifica Radio, U.S. Election
    Coverage, Israel/Palestine Media Bias, Serbian Media and the
    AOL-Time Warner merger

    MediaChannel welcomes our new affiliates:
    *Radio Rookies - a project of WNYC Radio*
    *Refugees Online*
    *Radio in London*
    *Ontario Independent Media Center*
    *Strategic Forecasting, LLC*

    jobs*events*action alerts*services*equipment*programming & more

    *Bookmark This!*
    Find newspapers and news sites worldwide with quick links to over
    600 news sources sorted by region and country.

    MediaChannel is seeking interns with a background in media studies,
    media activism, or with Web publishing, programming, and multimedia
    Contact [email protected]


    MediaChannel is a not-for-profit project of OneWorld and The Global
    Center, and is produced by Globalvision New Media. ( ) is the first Web
    portal dedicated to international media issues, and the premiere Internet
    source for analysis and information about the media. Driven by content
    from a network of more than 600 international media
    organizations and contributors.

    MediaChannel explores areas such as freedom of expression, citizen
    access to media, trends in media ownership, media arts and the
    intersection of media and politics.

    Support for has come from the Rockefeller Foundation,
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    World Newspaper Congress, Hong Kong, June 2001


    Newspapers that take their classified advertising onto the web do not lose
    print revenues. That is just one of the findings in a major new study of on-line classifieds that will be presented to participants at the 54th World Newspaper Congress and 8th World Editors Forum, the global meetings of the world's press that will be held in Hong Kong from 3 to 6 June.
    Newspapers that take their classified advertising onto the web do not lose
    print revenues.

    That is just one of the findings in a major new study of on-line classifieds
    that will be presented to participants at the 54th World Newspaper Congress
    and 8th World Editors Forum, the global meetings of the world's press that
    will be held in Hong Kong from 3 to 6 June.

    The study undertaken by the Innovation International Media Consulting Group
    for the World Association of Newspapers also predicts that, for the
    foreseeable future, print classified will remain a mainstay of the
    newspapers' business and should not be neglected as management attention
    shifts to the internet.

    "This report is based on the experience of newspapers in10 countries
    operating in a wide variety of markets. All of them sell classified
    advertising on the web, and none of them reports that the print business has
    suffered as a result," said Timothy Balding, the Director General of the
    Paris-based WAN.

    "These experiences contradict some predictions that newspapers would have to
    'kiss their classifieds goodbye,'" said Mr Balding. "Newspapers are
    optimistic about the future of web and print classifieds -- they believe the
    combination clearly produces added value for customers." The report explores
    how they are managing their web sites, selling web classifieds and other key
    strategic issues.

    The on-line classified study is part of "Innovations in Newspapers," the
    global report prepared for WAN each year by Innovations International that
    has become a standard reference for developments in the newspaper industry.
    Topics in this year's edition include media convergence; the growth of
    "popular" newspapers that are avoiding stories about sex and violence; news
    agencies in the digital world; and many others.

    The book will be the subject of a major presentation at the WAN Congress and
    Forum, which is expected to draw more than 1,000 publishers, managing
    directors, editors and other senior executives to Hong Kong (Editors note:
    Further information on the Hong Kong events, together with the full
    programmes, the participation list and the registration options, can be
    found on the WAN web-site at or by contacting
    [email protected]).

    The Innovations report is produced with the help of the WAN READY project,
    which is dedicated to shaping the future of the newspaper and is supported
    by PubliGoupe, WRH Marketing, TELIA, MAN Roland, UPM-Kymmene and Unisys.

    Other Congress highlights include:

    -- A presentation by McKinsey and co, the renowned management consultants,
    on opportunities available to newspaper companies to grow revenues and
    stabilise costs. They will explore a range of issues including leveraging
    intangible assets like customer relations, marketing power and brand name
    into business opportunities.

    -- Mathias Döpfner, who at 37 was recently designated Chairman of the Board
    of the giant Axel Springer Group from 1 January 2002, will give his vision
    of how newspaper companies must 'reinvent' themselves in the multiple media
    age. The Springer Group publishes Bild Zeitung, one of the world's largest
    selling dailies.

    -- Tony Ridder, the Chairman and CEO of the Knight Ridder newspaper group,
    the second largest in the United States, will give his insights into the
    group's strategies, three years after moving its corporate headquarters from
    Miami to Silicon Valley to take advantage of the technological revolution.

    -- The annual WAN survey of world trends in the newspaper industry,
    including the latest information on global developments in newspaper
    circulation and advertising sales.

    -- A presentation on the experiences of the Prisa group, one of Spain's
    leading media companies, which publishes the country's biggest selling
    daily, El País and owns pay TV, radio and digital publishing operations.
    Juan Luis Cebrian, Managing Director of Grupo Prisa, will explain why the
    newspaper El País will continue to drive the success of the group.

    -- Case studies on 'reinventing' the newspaper business by Takuhiko Tsuruta,
    President & CEO of Nihon Keizai Shimbun, the giant Japanese financial daily;
    and Eugene Abov, Deputy Director General of the Prof Media group in Russia,
    which controls more than 50 media companies all over the country.

    Members of the Host Committee for the Congress and Forum are: Joy-Shan Lam,
    Managing Director, Hong Kong Economic Journal; Kin-ming Liu, General
    Manager, Apple Daily; Andrew Lynch, Editor, Hong Kong iMail; Nigel Oakins,
    Publisher and Executive Director, Hong Kong iMail; Cyril D. Pereira,
    Director, Newspaper Operations, South China Morning Post; Philip Revzin,
    Publisher, Asian Wall Street Journal; Francis K.C. Tiong, Executive
    Director, Ming Pao Enterprise Corporation; and Randy Weddle, Acting Managing
    Director, Asia/Pacific, International Herald Tribune.

    The Congress and Forum will enjoy the sponsorship of: Apple Daily, The Hong
    Kong SAR Government, The Hong Kong Tourist Association, The Hong Kong
    Economic Journal, The Hong Kong iMail, International Herald Tribune, Ming
    Pao Enterprise Corporation, Sing Tao Holdings, the South China Morning Post
    and Swire & Sons. The events are supported by The Society of Publishers in
    Asia and the partners of the WAN READY Project: PubliGoupe, WRH Marketing,
    TELIA, MAN Roland, UPM-Kymmene and Unisys.

    The Paris-based WAN, the global organisation for the newspaper industry,
    defends and promotes press freedom world-wide. It represents 17,000
    newspapers; its membership includes 67 national newspaper associations,
    individual newspaper executives in 93 countries, 17 news agencies and eight
    regional and world-wide press groups.

    Inquiries to: Larry Kilman, Director of Communications, WAN, 25 rue
    d'Astorg, 75008 Paris France. Tel: +33 1 47 42 85 00. Fax: +33 1 47 42 49
    48. Mobile: +33 6 10 28 97 36. E-mail: [email protected]

    Larry Kilman
    Director of Communications
    World Association of Newspapers
    25, rue d'Astorg
    75008 Paris France
    Tel: +33 1 47 42 85 00
    Fax: +33 1 47 42 49 48
    E-mail: [email protected]
    Visit our web site at
    [email protected]

    Conflict & emergencies

    Conflict tops agenda of EU-ACP talks


    Staving off conflict and finding paths to peace are top of the agenda at a meeting of lawmakers from the European Parliament and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries.



    Joseph Kabila is making a good impression in western capitals. But the issues at the heart of Congo's war remain unresolved.

    Ethiopian troops found inside UN buffer zone


    Ethiopian troops have been found inside a buffer zone intended to keep apart the once-warring armies of Horn of Africa neighbors Ethiopia and Eritrea, the United Nations said on Thursday.

    Landmines & Aid


    Egypt has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. Speaking at the UN, an Egyptian representative stated that the treaty "did not take into consideration the legitimate right of States for self-defense, including the use of landmines in certain conditions."
    Egypt has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. Speaking
    at the UN, an Egyptian representative stated that the
    treaty "did not take into consideration the legitimate
    right of States for self-defense, including the use of
    landmines in certain conditions."91 Egypt has objected
    to the treaty because it does not provide a legally
    binding obligation on states to remove mines they laid
    in other states. Egypt also believes that AP mines
    play an important role in self-defense, protection of
    borders, defense from terrorist attacks, and in
    deterring drug smuggling. Egypt states that
    alternatives to landmines must be in place before
    consideration of a ban; moreover, it believes that at
    present alternatives are restricted to those states
    with advanced military capabilities, thus creating an
    imbalance in the security requirements of states.92

    Egypt was one of twenty countries to abstain on the
    vote on UN General Assembly Resolution 54/54B calling
    for the universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty on 1
    December 1999. It had abstained on similar resolutions
    in 1997 and 1998. Egypt's opposition to the Mine Ban
    Treaty surfaced again when it blocked pro-treaty
    wording contained in the final declaration of the
    Africa-Europe Summit held in Cairo, 3-4 April 2000.
    Egypt insisted on the removal of a recommendation for
    states to join the Mine Ban Treaty and introduced
    weaker language urging efforts within the framework of
    the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), though
    it is not a state party.93 A German official told
    Landmine Monitor, "Germany, like other EU member
    states, regrets very much the Egyptian stance of
    denying any form of open dialogue on the subject."94

    The Egypt's anti-Mine Ban Treaty position continued at
    the Arab Regional Seminar on Landmines held at the
    Arab League Headquarters in Cairo 9-11 April 2000.
    Egypt was successful in insuring that the conference
    recommendations did not include mention of the Mine
    Ban Treaty but did include endorsement of the
    Conference on Disarmament (CD) as the appropriate
    forum to negotiate a comprehensive approach to the
    landmine problem. Members of the ICBL attending this
    conference were concerned that the views of pro-treaty
    mine-affected Arab countries like Yemen and regional
    NGOs in attendance were not recognized in the
    concluding statement. In a press report of this event,
    an unnamed Egyptian Foreign Ministry official stated
    that government had played no part in organizing the

    Egypt did not participate as an observer in the First
    Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in
    Maputo in May 1999. Egypt attended one of the ban
    treaty intersessional meetings on Technologies for
    Mine Action in May 2000 in Geneva.

    Despite repeated requests, however, there is no
    official written policy statement by Egypt declaring
    that AP mine production and export has ceased.

    At the IDEX99 defense fair in the United Arab
    Emirates, a marketing brochure from the state-run
    Heliopolis Company for Chemical Industries listed
    several types of mines for sale, including T/78 and
    T/79 antipersonnel mines. The T/78 and T/79 plastic
    blast mines were offered in boxes of 100 and 60
    respectively.102 While marketing brochures are not
    evidence of new production or continued transfer,
    advertising mines at an international defense fair
    would appear to represent intention to export the

    Egypt is assumed to have a large stockpile of
    antipersonnel mines, but details are not available. An
    Egyptian official stated that any such information was
    classified for reasons of military security.103

    The UK government has provided some assistance to
    Egypt for mine clearance. In 1996, the Department for
    International Development (DFID) provided $850,000 for
    the purchase of mine clearance equipment and in 1998 a
    further $166,000 was provided.126 The UK has also,
    upon the request of the Egyptian government, provided
    all available maps and historical records, as well as
    technical documents on mine clearance and military
    doctrine to help identify the location and nature of
    UK deployed mines.127 Royal Engineer experts from the
    Ministry of Defense have conducted visits in 1981,
    1984 and 1994 to offer technical advice and
    assistance. All relevant historical records were also
    made available to the UNMAS mission and the UK Army
    Historical Branch is currently in the process of
    putting all relevant information onto CD-ROM.128 The
    UK government admits that historical records on this
    issue are extremely patchy.

    When asked whether the UK would give substantial new
    funds to mine clearance efforts in the future, the
    view expressed was that it was unlikely that the UK
    would wish to provide additional financial assistance
    on the basis of an Egyptian estimate for the removal
    of mines. That said, however, it was felt that funds
    could be available for mine awareness and victim
    assistance, but that Egypt had not presented any
    proposals in this area.129

    The German government has similarly provided maps and
    historical records, initially in 1982. In 1998,
    Germany sent mine experts to Egypt for technical
    assistance and donated 110 Foerter Minex 2 mine
    detectors, with an estimated value of $411,000.130 In
    1994, Italy provided training for twenty Egyptian

    Egypt has received $1.432 million in U.S. demining
    assistance to date. Egypt requested U.S. assistance to
    supplement its national demining efforts in 1997 and
    was accepted into the U.S. program on 2 September
    1998. The U.S. government body that makes demining
    policy has limited the amount of U.S. funds available
    to Egypt in light of the $1.3 billion in military aid
    Egypt receives from the U.S. each year. There is an
    apparent reluctance on the part of the Egyptians to
    support its own demining effort with this form of

    Egypt does not appear to have developed an integrated
    humanitarian mine action strategy. Observers have
    noted that Egypt has not benefited from the recent
    experiences of the mine clearance community, which has
    stressed the need to develop mine clearance as a
    comprehensive strategy involving clearance, mine
    awareness and victim assistance. A symptom of this may
    be manifest in Egypt's perception that expensive high
    technology detection equipment will greatly assist
    mine clearance operations in the Western Desert and

    In February 2000, the Army Engineering Corps announced
    that its demining operations would be stopped because
    of insufficient funds.141 Up to 1981, the Egyptian
    government reports that 11 million mines and UXO were
    cleared. Between then and 1999, an additional 1.2
    million were cleared, 800,000 in the west and 400,000
    in the east.142 Clearance efforts have suffered from
    financial constraints and have resulted in periodic
    suspensions of activity. For example, the Army did not
    demine between 1991-1998.143

    Rwanda says Congo enemies flout pullback plan


    Rwanda has accused its opponents in the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo of not withdrawing in line with a U.N. disengagement plan, dismissing U.N. statements that withdrawals are on schedule.

    Security crises plague Africa


    Stalemate in the Western Sahara. Stand-off in Sierra Leone. The headlines go on. What hope is there that conflict-torn parts of Africa will pull themselves out of a vicious cycle of poverty, human rights abuse and violence? A United Nations watchdog attempts to point the way for the international community.

    Torture in Kenya Prisons continues


    More than a year after the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, Sir Nigel
    Rodley, visited the country to assess the condition of police cells, the
    situation seems the same, if not worse.

    UN troops capture key Sierra Leonean town


    United Nations peacekeeping troops last week took control of the strategic Sierra Leonean town of Lunsar, marking a major step in the UN's effort to occupy territory held by the anti-government Revolutionary United Front.

    Internet & technology



    Followers of the Linux and Opensource movements will not want to miss the appearance of the legendary John 'Maddog' Hall at the Linux Africa 2001 conference, hosted by AITEC and the Linux Professional's Association of South Africa, from 24 to 26 April 2001 at the Kyalami Exhibition and Conference Centre, Johannesburg.
    Followers of the Linux and Opensource movements will not want to miss the appearance of the legendary John 'Maddog' Hall at the Linux Africa 2001 conference, hosted by AITEC and the Linux Professional's Association of South Africa, from 24 to 26 April 2001 at the Kyalami Exhibition and Conference Centre, Johannesburg.
    Linux Africa will be the first major conference and exhibition event in South Africa to promote the use of Linux and Opensource. The event is aimed at both the business and technical communities, and will showcase the state of the art in Linux and Opensource, both in Southern Africa and in Africa as a whole.
    Maddog's appearance will be a highlight of Linux Africa. As Executive
    Director of Linux International John Hall carries with him an impressive
    reputation as prophet of the overwhelming possibilities of Opensource
    software. Hall has a long history in the Opensource movement prior to his
    position as Executive Director of Linux International, which he has held for
    the last five years.
    Before taking up his position at VA Linux Systems, John was employed by
    Compaq Computer Corporation in the Digital UNIX Marketing group and Bell
    Laboratories, and has been a very vocal advocate of Linux both inside and
    outside of Digital Equipment Corporation since 1994. In his earlier days
    Hall was Department Head of Computer Science at Hartford State Technical
    College, where his students gave him the nickname 'Maddog' due to his
    flamboyant approach to the world and his subject, as well as in recognition
    of his impressive, and constantly evolving, facial hair.
    The Opensource movement is helping to return control of enterprise
    infrastructure from the vendor back to the enterprise itself. Paul Kotschy,
    Chairman of the Linux Professional's Association of South Africa, believes
    that the greatest benefit for a commercial enterprise is, "To use Linux
    and Opensource technology to reduce its dependency on proprietary
    monopolistic software vendors, and in so doing to reduce the enterprise's
    risk of failure."
    "The LPA is working very closely with AITEC to facilitate what will surely
    be the premier Linux-related event on the continent," Kotschy says. "I would
    encourage IT players at all levels to attend, and especially to hear Maddog
    speak. John Hall is one of the leading International Linux and Opensource
    celebrities, and one of the forerunners of the Opensource movement. I've no
    doubt his appearance will be both informative and entertaining for everyone
    who experiences it."
    In his presentation, John 'Maddog' Hall will be addressing the ways in which
    Linux embraces the various operating systems in the IT industry (such as:
    Mainframes, Servers, Workstations, Client/Server and Embedded Systems), and
    he will also deal with the prospects Linux holds for the future, in an
    industry still dominated by proprietary software giants. The full conference
    programme and registration form can be found at Or contact [email protected] or
    your local AITEC office for full details.

    [email protected]

    African Internet Connectivity


    At this Web site you'll find information about Internet access
    on the African continent. The details range from information on Internet,
    telecommunications to related IT Infrastructure in Africa.
    Description: At this Web site you'll find information about Internet access
    on the African continent. The details range from information on Internet,
    telecommunications to related IT Infrastructure in Africa.

    SpectraLinks quick clicks:

    Internet Projects in Africa:

    Pan African Telecommunications Union (PATU):

    Resources, Articles and Data on Connectivity and Access to the Internet:

    African Internet Topology (Semret):
    To SUBSCRIBE send E-mail to: <[email protected]>
    In the E-mail body place: Subscribe SpectraLinks Your FULL Name

    ------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Sponsor ---------------------~-~>
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    Title : DigAfrica – “Your ICT gateway to Africa”
    Description : E-group at Yahoo. DigAfrica analyzes, informs and updates on
    Internet activities and progress in Africa as-they-unfold.
    URL :
    Subscribe : [email protected]

    IBSA and ECI to Collaborate on WebStream Project in Nigeria


    African American nonprofit will team up with global US teleconferencing firm to bring the 6th African African American Summit to the world via Internet Rev. Leon H. Sullivan will convene the 6th African African American Summit in Abuja, Nigeria on May 21 - 25, 2001. The 'Summit of Hope' hosted by the President Olusegun Obasanjo: Federal Republic of Nigeria will bring together ten thousand delegates from across the United States, Africa, Asia, Europe and the Caribbean in the spirit of purpose to help forge a new Africa. In partnership with executive Conference, Inc., (ECI) a leader in providing global teleconferencing services and International Black Student Alliance, Inc. (IBSA) an international nonprofit organization, the 'Summit of Hope' will finally be bought to the world stage using the advanced technology of 'Web Streaming' donated by ECI as friends of Africa.
    African American nonprofit will team up with global US teleconferencing firm to bring the 6th African African American Summit to the world via Internet
    Rev. Leon H. Sullivan will convene the 6th African African American Summit in Abuja, Nigeria on May 21 - 25, 2001. The 'Summit of Hope' hosted by the President Olusegun Obasanjo: Federal Republic of Nigeria will bring together ten thousand delegates from across the United States, Africa, Asia, Europe and the Caribbean in the spirit of purpose to help forge a new Africa. In partnership with Executive Conference, Inc., (ECI) a leader in providing global teleconferencing services and International Black Student Alliance, Inc. (IBSA) an international nonprofit organization, the 'Summit of Hope' will finally be bought to the world stage using the advanced technology of 'Web Streaming' donated by ECI as friends of Africa.

    It is expected that 25 African presidents and heads of state, as well as many CEOs and senior business executive of the largest corporations in America and the world will be in attendance. The Summit of Hope is expected to be the largest Summit of Africans, African Americans, and friends of Africa ever assembled on African soil. Present will be youth leaders, religious leaders and leaders from women's groups in Africa, America and throughout the Diaspora. The esteemed African Diplomatic Corps, which is comprised of Africa Ambassadors and government officials; all of which have played a large role in planning the Summit.

    Summit workshops and group meetings will focus on:

    Business, Trade and Investment
    HIV/AIDS (Health)
    Democracy and Governance
    Abuja, Nigeria is the capitol city of Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa.

    At ECI, their only business is providing the highest quality teleconferencing services to a broad range of America's foremost corporations, associations, and agencies. Our clientele covers a wide range of industries, including Business, Finance, Government, Law, Education, and Medicine. ECI is a recognized leader in worldwide teleconferencing services, providing exceptional value for our customers. Our focus on customer service has allowed us to build strong relationships with some of America's most prominent businesses, associations, and government agencies. ECI's client list includes IBM, the American Bar Association, the American Cancer Society, Columbia Records, the Federal Reserve Bank, and thousands more... The unique ECI experience has been widely recognized by customers, the press, and financial observers. For example, ECI has been named one of New Jersey's Finest Companies four years running (1996-99). Mass Mutual Insurance honored ECI with its 1998 Blue Chip Enterprise Award. Inc. Magazine has name
    d ECI to its Inc. 500 list in 1997 and 1998.

    A primary mission of IBSA is to create a comprehensive network of African, African American and Friends of IBSA among students, organizations and businesses throughout the Diaspora. IBSA provides economic development programs and activities that assists in raising the needed financial revenue for entrepreneurial ngo's and youth students interested in business and career development. IBSA is culturally integrated, meaning all races, ethnicity's and culturally unique individuals are welcome to join and support our cause. IBSA is a membership-based organization with a growing base of members and partners spanning the full spectrum of the African Diaspora. The organization has been recognized both nationally for community service and leadership and internationally for their work with youth and business development, as well as being a leader in providing innovative telecommunication support service to phoneless low income job seekers on welfare in the US. IBSA to its credit was a member of the Million Man March N
    ational Youth Organizing Committee, a US delegate to the 4th African African American Summit held in Harare, Zimbabwe in 1997, member of the National Organizing Committee for the Million Youth Movement held in Atlanta, Georgia in 1998 & Denver, CO in 1999, Co-sponsor of the 4th National African Amrican Student Leadership Summit held in Arlington, VA Sept. 2000, a sponsor GOREE 2000 Global African Futures Summit World Planning Conference held in Dakar, Senegal and hosted by the African Futures Forum and the PanAfrican Federation of OAU Associations & Clubs, and a member of the 'Digital Hit Squad' which conducted the first ever street-level online voting opportunities in the United States during the the Arizona primary election. Voter participation increased over 1000 percent.

    For more information of streaming dates and times call Lazone Grays with IBSA office at 785-232-5888 xt1101. To request a local location for streaming to your school, university or community center call Keith Peters with ECI at 1-800-788-1885, xt 8218 to obtain information and/or signup. There will be opportunities for interactive participation from designated locations throughout the world and the deadline for signing up a location is April 22, 2001

    Daily Web streams will be daily, with special coverage being focused on the Business, Trade & Investment workshops and extended coverage of the special Young People's Summit Assembly on May 22, 2001.



    Additional questions should be directed to the African African American Summit Office at 1 800 835-3530

    Register here to receive date/time by email: [email protected]

    [email protected]

    l'internet au Bénin


    Dans le cadre de l'organisation de la fête de l'internet au Bénin édition 2001, les associations ORIDEV et ISOC Bénin organisent un Forum de discussion thématique sur l'internet au Bénin. Ce Forum appelé Forum I-Bénin, durera 45 jours et aura lieu à partir du 03 mars. Trois thémes seront discutées pendant ce forum : 1/ Amélioration de la connectivité au Bénin 2/ Mise en oeuvre d'un NIC au Bénin 3/ Promotion de contenu béninois sur Internet Chaque théme sera discuté durant deux semaines. Chacun de ces thémes sera introduit par un texte rédigé par un spécialiste de la question. Toute personne s'intéressant aux Nouvelles Technologies, étudiant(e), professionnel(le) de l'informatique ou de l'internet, fournisseurs d'accès, et particulier, peut s'abonner au Forum.

    Pour ce faire, vous pouvez:
    a/ soit envoyer un message à l'adresse [email protected] avec comme
    contenu du message subscribe forum-oridev-isoc. Tous les messages adressés
    à cette adresse doivent être en texte simple (pas de format html).
    b/ soit aller à la page
    <> pour une inscription en ligne. Un message
    de confirmation vous sera envoyé.

    New SANGONet website


    SANGONeT is a facilitator in the effective and empowering use of information communication technology (ICT) tools by development and social justice actors in Africa. We aim to share information, build capacity and link people and organisations through the use of ICTs. We have over a decade's experience in servicing civil society organisations in Africa.



    How can technology planning support your organization's communications
    goals? Where can you find support in developing a plan? How does technology
    planning fit into your overall organizational planning? This discussion
    with technology experts and nonprofit colleagues will help you determine
    when and how it makes sense for your organization to develop a technology
    plan. Pose your questions to tech experts, share your own experiences and
    find out, for example, how other nonprofits are using technology plans to
    advocate for funding. <> and
    <> invite you to participate in a national
    online event this week, "Technology and Communications Planning."

    Join us March 26-30 in TechSoup's Community at

    This event at will be
    managed by the Benton Foundation (editors of and facilitated by
    technology planning expert, Marc Osten of Summit Collaborative

    Following the week-long event, TechSoup will also host and archive the
    ongoing discussion on its message boards. This is the second in a series of
    nonprofit technology events, co-sponsored by and

    Tanzania Telecoms goes to MSI Cellular


    MSI Cellular has taken management control of the Tanzania Telecommunications Company after a first payment of $60 million for a stake in the company. The deal may leave four other operators, including Vodacom, out in the cold. [15 March 2001]

    TUAC, ICFTU concerns related to the work of the DOT Force


    With regard to the current work of the DOT Force and the related debate on bridging the digital divide, the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD (TUAC) and the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) have made the following observations.
    With regard to the current work of the DOT Force and the related debate on bridging the digital divide, the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD (TUAC) and the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) have made the following observations.


    1. We are confident that the members of the DOT Force will agree with us that as the pace of the digital revolution has accelerated, the "digital divide" within and between countries has widened. We are also sure that they will join us in stressing that in order to bridge the Digital Divide, fresh thinking and attitudes will be required from all sides, and that governments will have to enhance their ability to co-operate with components of society, which we understand to include business, trade unions, other non-profit organisations, and local communities. The private sector will also have to accept a broader share of moral and social responsibilities in its efforts to build a seamless global business environment.

    2. We are concerned that the DOT Force up till now has not met the challenge set in the Okinawa charter with regard to the integration of all major stakeholders in the process. The DOT Force has not achieved a balance between business and other stakeholders. This applies in particular to the representation of trade unions in the DOT Force, as well as to representatives of other civil society groups. This will lay the DOT Force report and action plan open to criticism when it is published and runs the risk of alienating stakeholders from precisely those constituencies whose participation will eventually be needed to help build the success of the activities of the DOT Force. We urge DOT Force members to see trade unions as natural partners in building the matrix of possible approaches and actors to tackling core issues associated with the digital divide.

    Trade unions are appropriate and reliable partners

    3. Many initiatives in recent years aimed at promoting information and communication technologies (ICT) in developing countries have proved unsustainable. This phenomenon can be attributed in part to the lack of institutional "staying power", and partly to a lack of representativeness on the part of the organisations chosen as partners in such projects. With no membership, and with no income besides that provided by donor organisations, and usually without any support from the private sector, such projects have often unsurprisingly turned out to be "lame ducks".

    4. In contrast, it should be noted that trade unions are independent mass membership organisations, with a strong interest in human rights and social and economic development. They enjoy an institutional longevity without a dependence on external financial support.

    5. We are confident that the DOT Force will share the commitment of the international trade union movement and its national member organisations to the empowerment and self-improvement of working people in developing countries (in particular young workers and women workers).

    6. If the DOT Force is to take a systemic approach, partnership will be required with stakeholders with global coverage, from the international to the community level. The international trade union movement is therefore an appropriate partner.

    Workers and education

    7. Education, and in particular, vocational training, has been identified as one of the most important tools in bridging the digital divide. Vocational training initiatives, in order to be effective, require input from representatives of the workforce. Trade union organisations have long been committed and have proven to be successful in supporting and promoting vocational training as well as the acquisition of new skills by the workforce. This was confirmed in a OECD study in 1999 which linked unionisation to better results in vocational training programmes.

    8. Trade unions all over the world support public as well as employer-supported training, and often unions run their own training courses to improve the skills base of their members. Many examples of trade union-sponsored IT training schemes exist around the world, from the range of programmes the ICFTU is running to promote Internet use among its affiliates, through to basic IT skills training initiatives undertaken locally by trade unions across the globe. These initiatives are complemented by the international residential information technology and distance education training programmes run by the Programme for Workers' Activities in the Turin training centre of the International Labour Organization.

    Workers and access to ICT

    9. Practical lessons can also be learned from the range of experiences of trade unions on computer-purchasing schemes. In Sweden, Australia, Singapore and United States, partnerships have been set up between national trade union centres and the private sector (primarily internet service providers and vendors of computer equipment) and in some cases governments (where tax incentives have been negotiated in relation to the purchase of computer equipment for union members). The Swedish trade union PC-buying scheme, for example, boosted the Swedish retail market for PCs by around 50% in 1997 over a six month period. Although it is clear that many variables differ between developing countries and industrialised countries (in particular purchasing power), we believe that there are many elements of this targeted approach to spreading use of ICT which are relevant, and which could be reproduced in initiatives to bridge the digital divide.

    Workers are major stakeholders

    10. We are concerned that, if the DOT Force fails to include stakeholders representative of global civil society, its action plan will lack a realistic vision of how to bridge the digital divide between rich and poor countries. We are concerned that the lack of inclusion may lead to a lack of sustainability. In addition, we are concerned that DOT Force members may fail to take into account several years of experience of pilot projects and efforts of trade unions and other key civil society actors to introduce effective use of ICTs around the world. If such an omission is made, there is a strong chance that mistakes of the past will be needlessly revisited. It should be noted that trade unions can play a special role as stakeholders, because they are part of both global civil society, and of global industry.

    11. It is important that the DOT Force argues against any undue fascination with new technologies and new economy business models. We would advise against a "more of the same" approach which will eventually mainly focus on network readiness, connectivity, and imaginative, well-hyped, but ultimately unsustainable pilot projects.

    12. Representatives of the DOT Force have stated that it's work will be "demand-driven", in order to identify priority targets for concerted action. It is important that the DOT Force not fail in identifying correctly the societal stakeholders and partners so vital to the eventual success of the DOT Force initiatives. We are concerned that demand may come mainly from ICT manufacturers and vendors, and, as a result, may be less related to the urgent needs of the poor. Deregulated and liberalised markets for telecommunication services, continuing price-decreases of IT-devices and private sector initiatives alone are not a panacea for narrowing the divide. A comprehensive and effective approach is needed, including a broad set of policies and actions embedded in an overall framework of promoting sustainable development.

    Globalisation, the digital revolution and workers

    13. The chances of a backlash against globalisation, targeting the digital revolution are likely to grow, if workers in developed and developing countries cannot experience any positive impact on standards of living and quality of life. Moreover, workers in developing countries (particularly in Africa) are marginalised from the increasingly intensive informational collaboration between workers at the international level. Thus the digital revolution, if allowed to continue unchecked, will contribute to reduced information flow between poorer and richer countries, and will intensify the backlash.

    14. We propose that trade unions be more closely associated with regional information society initiatives, such as the African Information Society Initiative, as well as in global initiatives, such as the DOT Force and the UN's ICT Task Force.

    15. We welcome the G8's initiative to mobilise international attention around the challenge of bridging the digital divide. The international trade union movement is not only interested in the success of this initiative, but convinced that its participation as a core stakeholder will contribute significantly towards its success.

    TUAC's affiliates consist of over 55 national trade union centres in the 29 OECD industrialised countries which together represent some 70 million workers. (

    The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), was set up in 1949 and has 221 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories on all five continents, with a membership of 155 million. (


    eNewsletters & mailing lists


    MARCH 19, 2001


    A daily update on human rights and democratic development of the Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law based in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Radical lawyer and forthright human rights activist, Chief Gani Fawehinmi
    has decried the leadership style of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Fawehinmi
    who is nursing presidential ambitions against 2003 elections has opposed
    strongly the president’s stance on fuel price deregulation, stressing that
    he was rather loyal to foreigners than Nigerians. Fuel price deregulation is
    believed to be on the prompting of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

    Chief Fawehinmi also criticised Obasanjo’s frequent travelling abroad, and
    advised that the president should realise his journeys are at the expense of
    the people. The president is noted to have travelled 56 times since coming
    into office in 1999.

    Chief Fawehinmi has touched on major issues bothering the majority of
    Nigerians. President Obasanjo has been urged to cut short his globetrotting
    and stop presiding over the affairs of the country from outside but it seems
    the president is not prepared to do this. He has almost made the foreign
    minister redundant and really it is doubtful if he is acquainted with what
    Nigerians want and need. If he did, he would not be insistent on
    deregulating the price of petroleum products. It appears that the president
    and his colleagues do not have the interest of the country at heart. Every
    step, the government is embarking on points at one thing – poverty and
    austerity in harsher measures for Nigerians.


    An Islamic group in the country has called for the ban of old politicians,
    including present active ones from participating in politics. The group said
    that the dubious character of the politicians was enough reason to excuse
    them from government. Especially, the use of public office to loot funds and
    amass wealth for themselves were noted by the group.

    That the Obasnjo government is decked with sycophants and cronies is not a
    farce. The present administration, despite calls and opinions from well
    meaning Nigerians has gone ahead to fix into key positions, people who are
    neither popular with democracy nor the public. It is a shame to think that
    some of the members of the president’s cabinet were those who served under
    military dictatorships. They did not only serve but as well nominated the
    late Gen. Sani Abacha as sole presidential aspirant to continue to keep
    Nigerians under bondage. That era having passed, it would have been expected
    that the present administration would shun such people in government and
    give credit-worthy Nigerians a chance at making policies and controlling key
    positions in government. Albeit technocrats and people who could really make
    a difference have been pushed to the background.


    From Akure in Ondo State come reports that hundreds of people have been
    rendered homeless by the flooding of the Ala River in the state capital. The
    flood displaced residents in five communities.

    DISCOVERY learnt that the situation could have been avoided if the state
    government had acted when it was informed of an impending flood occasioned
    by the Ala River. The displaced people were at the Ondo State Government
    House to protest the government’ negligence and indifference before and
    after the incidence.

    The damage has been done but governor Adebayo Adefarati should realise that
    he must pay for his non-chalant attitude to the people he is governing.
    Having not been able to live up to the expectations of the people, he should
    not add to it as he has done by depriving them shelter. A government that
    can afford to shun its people in the period of dire need and such
    consequential circumstance is not fit to be the custodian of the people.


    The federal government gave indications last week of cancelling the Poverty
    Alleviation Programme (PAP) and replacing it with another, Youth Empowerment
    Scheme (YES). The scrapping of PAP is borne out of inadequate fund to
    support it. Unemployed youths were supposed to be earning N3, 500 monthly
    from PAP. Though PAP did not record success with members of the public due
    to its being hijacked by government officials and their cronies, a
    development which saw the monthly N3, 500 for unemployed youths being
    appropriated by greedy officials. Still under PAP, the federal government
    could not effect the payment of N7,500 monthly allowance for graduates
    serving in the National Youth Service Corps.

    With such background, it is doubtful if government will be able to hold the
    fort for YES. If there are no funds to finance PAP, where will the funding
    for YES come from? Besides, the federal government knows money will be
    involved at the launching of its intended YES. Rather than waste public fund
    launching a scheme that will neither see the light of day nor benefit
    Nigerians, government had better reconsider its plans.


    Youths from the Eleme Community in Eleme Local Government Council of Rivers
    State are spoiling to disrupt the activities of Julius Berger, a German
    multinational construction company handling the construction of railway
    lines that run across the community.

    The youths are protesting against their non-inclusion in the company’s
    workforce as provided in the federal government guidelines that employment
    opportunities into the grade levels 1-6 should be allotted to the host
    communities of the projects.

    DISCOVERY source said that instead of abiding by the federal government’s
    order, Julius Berger opted to hire the services of army and Mobile Policemen
    (MOPOL) to harass the indigenes of the communities.

    The security personnel who were paid N50, 000 by Julius Berger were
    allegedly accused to have shot into some women who were going to farm where
    the pipelines project ran across. Julius Berger was also allegedly indicted
    of refusing to recognise and work with community liaison officers elected by
    the community.

    It can be recalled that railway project which would run across Onne, Alode,
    Alesa and Aleto communities in Eleme Local Government was commissioned by
    the Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar administration in 1999.

    While the youths are protesting for Julius Berger’s refusal to employ them,
    the company was also accused of not coming up with the Environmental Impact
    Assessment (EIA) of the project.

    Thought the railway line was geared towards bringing development to the
    community, it must not be done at the expense of the community whose
    economic, social and cultural rights are being violated with impunity.

    In the same vein, traditional rulers in the area were crying that Julius
    Berger did not consult them before embarking on the project. DISCOVERY
    learnt that royal fathers were strongly behind the youths in their action to
    seek redress to the perceived neglect.

    It can also be recalled that on April 11, 2000 one Ogoni youth was shot to
    death when youths in the area went to challenge the construction of roads in
    the area, after perceived neglect and abandonment.

    We call on all civil society organisations in the country to pressurise the
    federal and Rivers State governments to take precautionary measures before
    the Eleme issue escalates.

    March 20, 2001


    Over 462 contract workers of Eleme Petrochemicals Limited (EPCL) Rivers
    State have down tool in protest of their total neglect by management of the
    company and the Nigerian government.

    Inherited from Choda, JJC, Kobe and Spil Bite, the companies that built
    EPCL, the workers were promised by the management of EPCL of being converted
    to permanent staff after putting six months.

    "We have been working with EPCL from 1995 to 2001 as casual workers without
    being converted to permanent staff", one of them told DISCOVERY.

    They argued that while EPCL place cranes machines on two months routine
    services, they themselves are being subjected to subhuman treatments such as
    no leave, no adequate medical attention, no allowances and substandard

    The workers allegedly claimed that in spite of carrying out the company’s
    major jobs, they were paid meagre salaries while their counterparts who sit
    in air conditioned offices doing nothing receive fat salaries.

    Contrary to the provision of the Nigerian Labour Law that states that
    employers of Labour should either confirm or dismiss their employees after
    three months probation, there have been recorded cases of employees being
    sacked after working for a company for over 30 years as casual workers. Many
    of them end up without terminal benefits and allowances and each time they
    embark on peaceful demonstration in protest of perceived ill treatment, the
    companies invite security agents. So many workers have lost their lives
    through these constant confrontations with security agents.


    Four people were burnt to death in a house at Umo Orok area of Calabar in
    Cross River State, last week. The four were victims of a fire outbreak
    precipitated by storage of fuel in the house. One of the deceased was said
    to have always stored jerrycans of fuel in his room despite warnings by
    neighbours. How the fire started has not been ascertained but it is believed
    that a match must have been lit near the stored fuel to have caused an

    Earlier in the month, similar incidents had occurred. In one of such
    incidence, a man and his family were burnt to death. In another development,
    a cyclist carrying a passenger with a jerrycan of fuel was burnt to death.
    The motorbike had collided with another vehicle and caught fire as a result
    of the jerrycan of fuel. The passenger escaped the inferno.

    This pathetic situation nonetheless paints the picture of what the Nigerian
    government has done to its citizens. The persistent fuel scarcity in the
    country has made motorists and black marketers turn their residents or
    workshops into filling stations of sort. In order to spend less time at
    filling stations, some motorists buy in jerrycans (though illegal) and fill
    their vehicles as well. Fuel in jerrycans are kept in their residence for
    ‘safe keeping’. And there are those who after buying into their vehicles
    still drive home to empty it into jerrycans so that fuel thieves won’t help
    themselves to it. The consequence has been devastating. All this is
    happening because there is a government that does not care to know the
    plight of the citizens. Rather than see to the availability of fuel,
    government is compounding the problem by insisting on fuel price
    deregulation. Observers are strongly suspicious of government’s insistence
    on deregulation and the continued scarcity of fuel. Some think the federal
    government is the brain behind the scarcity and not perceived saboteurs.
    Government, they have posited, is maintaining the scarcity so that it can
    justify its reason for fuel price deregulation.


    A rainstorm at Ogbolo-Isiokpo in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers
    State destroyed about 60 buildings in the village, leaving more than hundred
    people homeless, last week. Described as the worst in the history of the
    community, the storm destroyed farmlands, including economic trees and food

    DISCOVERY learnt that the Rivers State Government has donated N2.5 million
    to help the rehabilitation of the victims.


    The National Coalition on Violence Against Women (NCVAW), a Non-Governmental
    Organisation is in the vanguard for seeking stricter measures for violators
    of women’s rights in the country. The organisation has maintained that some
    sentences for such violators are not commensurate with their offence. It
    noted the two-year jail term for convicts of such attacks as rape and acid
    bath, positing that it was "ridiculous". According to the organisation,
    debasing treatments of women like rape, genital mutilation, battering and
    acid attacks require very strict and specific laws.

    Meanwhile, state Houses of Assembly are receiving proposals to enact laws
    that will stop obnoxious traditional practices against women. Last year, the
    Bayelsa State House of Assembly passed a bill outlawing female genital
    mutilation. Earlier this month, the Enugu State House of Assembly passed a
    bill outlawing the practice of making women undergo harmful traditional
    rites. And in a separate development, the Ebonyi State House of Assembly
    gave indication that it would soon do same.

    While civil society groups are looking out for more bills in this regard, it
    is but pertinent to dwell on the campaign of NCVAW. Many women or wife
    batterers have escaped the arm of the law. Recently, a man, Mr. Emeka Ani,
    killed his wife in the course of severe beating and assault. Though
    apprehended by the police, information reaching DISCOVERY is that he may
    stop the course of justice by buying his freedom and escaping out of the
    country. Unfortunately, much has not been heard about Mr. Ani. Civil society
    groups cannot afford to let him get away even if the police or government

    MARCH 21, 2001


    T he federal government has promised civil servants in the country prompt
    payment of their salaries, taking effect from this month. Government, making
    the announcement on Monday 19th, March 2001 stressed that officials in the
    ministries or parastatals caught trying to stifle the federal government’s
    objective would be dealt with. The federal government said it has asked the
    Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) to confer with other financial institutions
    involved in the payment of salaries of civil servants in the country to
    address the causes of delay in payment of the salaries. Though on its own,
    it has partly attributed the delay to the staff audit exercise aimed at
    fishing out ghost workers.

    It is certain that the federal government would not have acted had civil
    servants not conducted rounds of protests and strikes because of their
    delayed salaries. Civil servants in the country, especially those on the
    lower grade levels, have more often than not, remained unpaid for as long as
    3 months. The situation, sometimes being caused by senior officials who
    hijack the salaries and sometimes force junior workers to sign pay vouchers
    without receiving their salaries. In the same vein, public office holders
    continue to receive their salaries with fringe benefits regularly and
    without delay while their colleagues in lower positions remain unpaid.

    Having announced its good intentions, the federal government should keep to
    its promises. Federal government should recall that the N7, 500 monthly
    allowance promised graduates serving in the National Youth Service Corps is
    yet to be implemented 3 months into when the promise was made.


    In Lagos State, the Council of Industrial Unions (COIU) has accused the
    state government of victimising workers because of their stance on the new
    minimum wage. The allegation came on the heels of the retrenchment exercise
    currently going on in the state’s civil service. The crux of the matter is
    that people who are not up to retirement age are getting sack letters,
    workers between ages 35 and 50 and who are still in their productive years.
    The union identified two of such workers who were active during the protest
    for the implementation of the new minimum wage. However, the union, which
    sensed some foul play, absolved governor Ahmed Tinubu from the issue on
    grounds that he had personally assured the union that only retirable people
    would be affected in the retrenchment exercise. This notwithstanding, there
    is cause for alarm. There were reports that the Lagos State government
    slated about 10, 000 workers for retrenchment. Though the government has
    debunked this, the economic and social effects of the exercise need to be
    considered. Retrenching workers means making an alternative means of income
    readily available for them. Having placed retrenched workers automatically
    on the pensions list, the government need understand that funding for the
    pension should not be delayed, else it would mean placing those retiredones
    from a bad situation to a worse one.


    In Ogun State, lawyers have joined the band wagon advocating for a new and
    healthy lease of life for the people in the state. the Ijebu-Ode branch of
    the Nigerian Bar Association (NBA) last week lashed out at the Local Council
    Chairmen in the state for their perceived negligence of duty. Particularly,
    the NBA noted the deplorable condition of roads in the state and wondered
    why it was so when there were elected council chairmen.

    The situation in Ogun State is a picture of what is obtained in other parts
    of the country. Office holders have continued to advertise their
    achievements even when there is really nothing to show for it. Local
    government chairmen and their state governor counterparts have been telling
    the world a lot of lies.


    Reports reaching DISCOVERY from Imo State say that the activities of members
    of the Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra
    (MASSOB) are growing to an alarming rate. DISCOVERY gathered that MASSOB, in
    its wake of trying to enforce normalcy in the prices of petroleum products
    in the state, has been harassing residents, carrying out unlawful arrests
    and demanding bail fees before releasing those arrested and torturing people
    held captive. Oil marketers who are the main targets of MASSOB were on a
    protest march at the Imo State Police Command recently to report MASSOB to
    the authorities and seek for protection against threats to their lives and
    freedom. they claimed that about 10 of them who were arrested and detained
    by the militant group for selling fuel above the pump price were made to pay
    between N20, 000 and N30, 000 bail fee before being released. In another
    development, MASSOB members invaded a filling station, attacked the
    attendant on duty and helped themselves to the money for the sales of the
    day. Only the timely intervention of motorists who were on queue to buy fuel
    saved the situation as they angrily accosted the MASSOB members on their

    Whether or not the people involved in these actions are MASSOB members
    notwithstanding, there could be nothing wrong with trying to sanitise a
    dwindling economic situation but there is something wrong when there is no
    legal backing of such actions. It would be recalled that earlier this year,
    the Imo State Police Command had apprehended some members of MASSOB on
    alleged harassment of residents and disturbance of public peace. From the
    reports, it is obvious that MASSOB is going against the law - extorting
    money from people, harassing and torturing innocent citizens - actions that
    are far from crusaders of human rights and advocates of fair play and

    despite the ban by the federal government on such militant groups as MASSOB,
    it is appalling to find that the federal government itself is helpless as to
    helping the situation. But government has to do something this, especially
    ensuring the safety of citizens and solving the economic problems, such as
    the fuel scarcity, which are giving some undesirable elements the basis for
    sprouting up.

    MARCH 22,2001


    The controversial Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) may be
    confirming the misgivings some observers and civil society groups in the
    Niger Delta region had of its necessity to the region. More than 7 months
    after being endorsed by the National House of Assembly, the NDDC is yet to
    be active. Funding has turned out now to be a handicap. Managing Director of
    the commission, Mr. Godwin Omene said in Warri recently that the
    multinational oil companies in the Niger Delta states have failed to release
    their share of funding to the commission. The federal government, which
    spearheaded the commission has also not released funds. And the NDDC which
    is meant to address the problems of the Niger Delta people, especially oil
    producing communities, cannot act.

    For all civil society groups and concerned Niger Deltans know, the NDDC is a
    replica of the defunct Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development Commission
    (OMPADEC) which was manned by cronies of the government of the day. OMPADEC
    achieved nothing for the Niger Delta people and it is doubtful if the NDDC
    would going by its poor start.

    Yet again, oil companies operating in the region have showed their
    indifference to the plight of their host communities by failing, after 3
    months of the inauguration of the commission, to contribute to its funding
    as earlier agreed.

    Government on its part should be drawn to this development. President
    Olusegun Obasanjo who initiated the NDDC Bill against oppositions from the
    House of Assembly and critics ought to justify his reason for setting up the
    commission. The Niger Delta people are not prepared to tolerate another
    ‘white elephant’ project.

    Meanwhile, arrangements have been concluded for NDDC to move from the former
    OMPADEC office in Port Harcourt to an eight-storey building erected by the
    late Gen. Sani Abacha. The land on which the building was built was
    forcefully appropriated by the late head of state. A Port Harcourt High
    Court had ruled, in a suit on the land, in favour of the owner, Dr. Eke
    Spiff. Dr. Spiff sold the building to the Rivers State Government to the sum
    of N200, 000, 000.00 (two hundred million naira).


    As the federal government of Nigeria reinstates its resolve to increase
    prices of petroleum products, the Nigerian populace have made themselves
    battle ready to oppose the actualisation of the plan. For a period of eight
    days (having begun on Tuesday 20th March, 2001), Nigerian masses will join
    civil unions in the country on a nation-wide programmed protest of President
    Obasanjo’s coined ‘deregulation’ of the petroleum sector. Having slated two
    national rallies for Lagos, former capital of the country and Abuja, the
    current capital, the Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) held the first protest
    rally yesterday Wednesday 21 in Lagos. The protest rallies are peaceful and
    the NLC which is co-ordinating other unions like the NANS and ASUU (both
    academic) has instructed the state branches to be wary of any form of
    violence in their rallies.

    The protest rallies of the NLC and other unions have been borne out of the
    federal government’s refusal to reason through dialogue and threats with and
    from the bodies, including Nigerians. The Nigerian government has failed in
    this test of the spirit of democracy. The fact that the majority of
    Nigerians are against the increase in prices of petroleum products has not
    been enough reason for the federal government to stop its plan. It has
    forgotten too soon that the voice of the majority always counts in
    democracy. Rather, President Obasanjo and his Information Minister, Prof.
    Jerry Gana and other of his sycophants are choosing to shun the voice of
    Nigerians to please themselves, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and
    the World Bank. The federal government has insisted that Nigerians are being
    ‘pampered’ in their own homeland! The loans Obasanjo wants from these world
    financial bodies - are they for the good of Nigerians or for the self
    aggrandisement of himself and his political class?


    Last week, the 14th and 15th of March, 2001 President Olusegun Obasanjo was
    in Bayelsa State, incidentally where Odi community, the 1999 devastated
    village is. However, against expectations of Bayelsans, especially the
    people of Odi, the president evaded to dwell on issues nearest the hearts of
    the people. For the people of Odi, though Obasanjo announced the federal
    government’s construction of prefabricated houses for those displaced during
    the soldiers’ attack, he however did not see reason to justify the N25
    billion compensation the community has requested for.

    It would be recalled that many indigenes of Odi community in Bayelsa State
    were killed, raped, their houses burnt by soldiers of the Nigerian Army in
    November 1999 who were deployed on the orders of President Obasanjo to deal
    with some miscreants. The people of Odi have been crying for justice since
    the ill and unlawful treatment meted out to them by the federal government.

    Really, civil society groups ought to re-awake to the plight of Odi people
    and ensure that Obasanjo pays his dues to the community. He cannot just give
    comfort in lip service and fail to alleviate the people’s sufferings.


    The Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (IHRHL), Port Harcourt,
    Rivers State has condemned the brutal killing of Kuwaiti woman journalist
    and women rights activist, Hedayet Sultan Al-Salem. Al-Salem who was shot
    while sitting at the back of her car by unidentified gunmen was, until her
    sudden death, active in campaigns aimed at securing full political rights
    for Kuwaiti women, including the right to vote and to be voted for.

    IHRHL is calling on all national and international Non-Governmental
    Organisations and other civil rights groups to prevail on the Kuwaiti
    government to order a thorough and proper investigation into Al-Salem’s


    In continuation of its nation-wide anti-deregulation protest against prices
    of petroleum products by the federal government, the Rivers State branch of
    the Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC) today March 22, 2001 took to the streets
    in a peaceful demonstration.

    The rally started with the convergence of workers at the NLC secretariat, No
    24 Benin Street, Port Harcourt where they took off to the Civic Centre.

    addressing the workers at the Civic Centre, the state NLC Chairman, Comrade
    Sam Jaja charged on the government not to go ahead with the plan on the
    deregulation exercise. Jaja said that government’s plan was against the
    wishes of the Nigerian workers and the masses, adding that as elected
    officers, those who pilot the affairs of government should abide by the
    wishes of the electorates.

    The workers went round the city of Port Harcourt in a convoy of over 30

    Meanwhile, criticisms have continued to trail the workers’ rally. DISCOVERY
    reporter who monitored the rally was told by some workers that by choosing
    to go round the city in a convoy of buses, the objective of the rally was
    defeated. They argued that that the impact of the rally would have been felt
    much if the workers had marched the streets.

    Today’s rally was slated to take place in seven states of the federation,
    which include Sokoto, Anambra, Osun, Rivers, Benue, Adamawa and Yobe.

    DISCOVERY-NETWORK is a daily update on human rights and democratic development of the Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law based in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Send to: [email protected]


    Send an email with only the words 'usubscribe ihrhl-l' or 'unsubscribe ihrhl-l' to: [email protected] or use the form at:


    The East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment


    The 8th edition of the EANMAT newsletter can be viewed on the Kenya
    Malaria Information Service site at:

    EQUINET-l Newsletter No 5, 26 March 2001


    Newsletter of the Network for Equity in Health in Southern Africa (EQUINET)
    EQUINET-l Newsletter No 5, 26 March 2001

    Newsletter of the Network for Equity in Health in Southern Africa (EQUINET)

    1. Editorial
    2. Equity and health general
    3. Resource allocation
    4. Public-private subsidies
    5. Household poverty
    6. WTO, economic and social policy
    7. Human resources
    8. Human rights and health
    9. Research and Policy
    10. Popular participation / governance and health
    11. SADC News
    12. Letters and comments
    13. Useful Resources
    14. Jobs and announcements

    This and previous issues of the newsletter available at


    1. Editorial: Facets of the global health divide

    Editor's Choice, BMJ 2001; 322 ( 17 March )
    "Global inequities in health is the number one ethical issue of our age,
    argues Peter Singer, the Canadian bioethicist. Most of the sickness in the
    world is in the developing world, but most of the health care is in the
    developed world. This week's BMJ illustrates four facets of the divide.

    Pharmaceutical companies are under increasing pressure to make their drugs
    affordable in the developing world and to produce drugs for the conditions
    that are unique to the developing world. Drugs for treating HIV infection
    are, for example, unaffordable to most of the world's poor, and yet they can
    stop the disease from killing. Countries like South Africa, Brazil, and
    India are responding by producing generic versions of patented drugs.
    Pharmaceutical companies take action against them, and the rich and poor
    worlds collide. David Taylor calls for "mutual respect and a pragmatic
    willingness to work together," but argues that commercial companies can't
    solve the health divide alone.

    Poor countries are deprived not only of drugs but also of scientific
    information. Research libraries in rich countries have had to pay more for
    less information as publishers have increased their prices, and libraries in
    the poor world have lost all access. The digital divide (measured by access
    to information on the internet) is more extreme than any financial or health
    divide. This is especially sad because increasing access to information
    increases its value for everybody (because people add new insights) and the
    marginal cost of electronic information is zero. Publishers, like
    pharmaceutical companies, need to find ways to provide their goods cheaply
    in the developing world, and an increasing number are doing so.

    Even more fundamental than access to drugs or information is access to clean
    water, and it is only in the poor world that people do not have such access.
    Rhona MacDonald describes the terrible problem faced by Bangladesh, where
    people are being slowly poisoned by arsenic in their water. Wells were sunk
    to supply biologically clean water, but the geology of the rock means that
    the water contains arsenic. The problem is also seen in China, Mexico,
    Argentina, and Chile, and the solution is far from clear. Arsenic or
    dysentery is a poor choice.

    About 98% of the 3.43 million adult deaths related to poor reproductive
    health occur in the developing world. Many international agencies have thus
    worked hard to try and reduce this dreadful toll, but their work has been
    severely disrupted by President Bush prohibiting the use of US funds by any
    agency offering abortion related services. The family planning organisations
    want the prohibition reversed.


    2. Equity and health general

    Concrete efforts are necessary to provide clean drinking water and improve
    health as well as to increase awareness world-wide of the problems and of
    the solutions. 22 March is a unique occasion to remind everybody that
    solutions are possible. Use the resources on this WHO site to help turn
    words into political commitment and action.

    Around one sixth of the 6.1 billion people in the world lack access to
    improved sources of water, while 40% are without access to improved
    sanitation services (WHO 2000). This theme article explores the human right
    to water.

    The World Resources Institute in Washington DC has warned that the world's
    freshwater systems are in peril. It predicts that "by 2025, at least 3.5
    billion people or nearly 50 percent of the world's population will face
    water scarcity."

    News and information, advice, research and training, on low-cost water
    supply and sanitation in developing countries

    13 March - Human rights demonstrators all over the world this week accused
    American pharmaceutical companies of 'new global apartheid' for denying
    cheap anti-AIDS drugs to the Third World. Protestors from the Gray Panthers,
    Doctors-Without-Borders and Oxfam America made the accusation while
    picketing the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA)
    offices in Washington DC on Monday in support of the South African
    government's court challenge against 40 drug firms.

    CUBA OFFERS HELP ON CHEAPER AIDS DRUGS,3523,814701-6078-0,00.html
    President Fidel Castro has announced that Cuba has developed world-class
    AIDS drugs and wants to help SA and Brazil circumvent patent laws to produce
    cheap generic drugs for AIDS sufferers in their countries.
    "Cuba is producing those famous cocktails," Castro told Cuban television on
    Sunday before challenging multinational pharmaceutical companies to protest.
    "I would like to hear a protest so I could grin from ear to ear," he said.

    DRUGS ON G8 AGENDA,1113,2-14-659_999672,00.htm
    Leaders of the rich industrial world will study ways to help developing
    countries access Aids drugs and other life-saving medicines at their July
    summit in Genoa, Italy, a British official said on Wednesday. Pressure is
    growing for action, particularly in Africa where a high-profile court case
    brought by pharmaceutical companies against the South African government has
    highlighted the problem of high-cost treatments which are out of reach of
    the poor.

    DEMAND FOR NEW AIDS DRUG,1113,2-14-659_999256,00.htm
    Aids activists demanded on Tuesday that two companies improve access to a
    revolutionary new Aids drug, T-20, which could save the lives of thousands
    of people who fail to respond to conventional therapy.

    '10M AIDS DEATHS IN SA BY 2015',1113,2-14-659_998615,00.htm
    Aids could claim more than 10.5 million lives in South Africa by 2015, and
    leave one million children motherless by 2005, according to a report
    released on Monday.

    Leading AIDS activist group the Treatment Action Campaign plans to pressure
    the SA government into developing an HIV/AIDS treatment plan this year, TAC
    Chair Zackie Achmat told SABC radio on Monday.
    His statement follows the opening of the TAC's first National Congress held
    in Soweto, south of Johannesburg, on Sunday. "Over the last two years the
    TAC has built the foundations for a formidable mass movement to fight for
    access to treatment," the TAC says on their website.

    The opening of Tyger Trade and Training Centre near Cape Town on Friday
    became an international curtain raiser for World Tuberculosis (TB) Day, to
    be held on March 24. It is estimated that between 2000 and 2020, nearly one
    billion people will be newly infected, 200 million people will get sick, and
    35 million will die from TB - if control is not further strengthened.

    Traditional healers in Swaziland will now work hand-in-hand with hospitals
    and clinics in the fight against HIV/AIDS, the five-year Strategic Plan by
    the HIV/AIDS Crisis Management and Technical Committee said.

    The Health Systems Trust launched the South African Health Review 2000 on
    the 1st of March 2001. This is an annual publication that provides an annual
    and longer-term review of health policy developments in South Africa.

    Increased desertification and drought represent a serious threat to human
    health. The World Health Organization (WHO) expressed this concern at the
    fourth session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations
    Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which was held in Bonn, Germany
    (11-22 December 2000). For more information Rajeb Boulharouf
    <[email protected]> or Sonia Filippazzi <[email protected]>.


    Equinet Policy Series
    Can Research Fill the Equity Gap in Southern Africa? Dr. Rene Loewenson.
    Available from:TARSC, 47, Van Praagh Avenue, Milton Park, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    US$5.00 [email protected]


    3. Resource allocation

    By Charles Crothers. Paper to the ISA RC 19 Annual Conference 2000: Social
    Protection in the New Era: What Future for Welfare?
    "In their opening sentence, Amhad et al note that 'In the literature on
    development issues, it has often been assumed (explicitly or by implication)
    that developing countries are too poor to be able to ‘afford’ social
    security systems. There are good reasons, however, to question this
    assumption'. This paper is a brief exploration of this issue, using Southern
    Africa as a case example."


    Equinet Policy Series
    Equity in Health in Southern Africa: Overview and Issues from annotated
    bibliography Equinet Steering Committee. Available from:TARSC, 47, Van
    Praagh Avenue, Milton Park, Harare, Zimbabwe. US$5.00 [email protected]

    This paper examines the key issues arising out of the annotated bibliography
    on health and equity compiled by a network of institutions who came together
    at the 1997 meeting on Equity in Health, held at Kasane, Botswana.

    In discussing of the concept of equity, the paper shows how these can differ
    depending on the political philosophy concepts 'equity' relates to and is
    derived from. However, much of the material under discussion stresses that
    inequity referes to differences in health care that are unecessary,
    avoidable and unfair, and that equity goals in health care would seek to
    identify and remove such differences - however subjective and socially
    defined they may be. In a region ridden by gross inequalities in health,
    differential inputs in those whose needs are greatest - or vertical equity -
    seems the most important principle to pursue. However, a focus on vertical
    equity, it is argued, requires an emphasis on a wide range of social and
    economic areas - such as public housing or childhood poverty for example -
    if it is to be adequately addressed within the health sector. It also
    requires an emphasis on the active involvement of people to make choices
    over goods, and to direct resources to themselves.

    In constitutional terms, while most Southern African countries endorse
    distribution of health resources based on need, the practical difficulties
    associated with this has led countries to adopt an approach where equity in
    health is seen as a social obligation rather than a right. Moreover, where a
    right to health does exists (as in South Africa for example), this may in
    fact be exercised only by those with greater access to and familarity with
    legal recourse. There has been little focus on how to legally enshrine a
    commitment to equity in health in the region - an area that needs further
    monitoring and debate.

    Much of the research discussed in this paper notes the relationship between
    wider social and economic inequalities and health. It also outlines positive
    features of health care that reduce health inequalities and improves the
    health status of high risk groups, and those features of the health system
    that exacerbate inequity. These are all areas that need further
    investigation if research is to motivate changes in health systems. Ensuring
    that health care resources are allocated progressively is also a key concern
    in health equity research, and many papers cited here explore how resource
    allocation needs to be improved at both household and state levels. Cost
    recovery objectives, and their impact on equity is also a central subject of
    ongoing debate. It is also clear that if health resources are to be directed
    towards poorer groups, there is a need for further research on how
    demythologising the medical profession and vesting greater authority in the
    community itself leads to greater health benefits for those communities.

    The variety of methodologies for monitoring equity are discussed, and it is
    concluded that at present, there are no commonly agreed equity indicators in
    the SADC region. Monitoring equity needs to become a tool for development
    rather than a tool for measurment. If it is to play this role, it is also
    important to define the triggers for change in policy and practice.

    The report concludes that critical future areas of research include: the
    definition and extent of differences in health status that are unecessary,
    avoidable and unfair; the determinants of those inequalities in health; the
    specific differences in the distribution of health inputs to people whose
    health needs are different, and how vertical equity is to be addressed. The
    most important areas of need are identified as: a focus on the social
    dimensions of equity; a focus on the equity impact of resource allocation in
    health; an exploration of human resource development in relation to equity
    and identifying triggers for equity oriented decsion making within and
    beyond the health sector; to inform debates on wider relationships between
    non health sector inputs and health outcomes and to assess the equity
    impacts of minumum health care packages and decentralisation of health care
    systems. The report also notes the importance of taking these issues forward
    at a regional level, of informing policy dialogue and of improving
    professional-stakeholder interaction.


    4. Public-private subsidies

    by Lawrence O. Gostin. The California/Milbank Series on Health and the
    Public, 3 January 2001. 518 pages. Co-published with and distributed by the
    University of California Press.
    This book offers the first systematic definition and theory of public health
    law. Gostin demonstrates that while regulation achieves powerful public
    good, it often does so at the expense of private rights. Consequently, in
    thinking about public health regulation, he takes a hard look at the
    tradeoffs—between the common welfare on the one hand and the personal
    burdens and economic interests of individuals and businesses on the other.
    Public Health Law creates an intellectual framework for the field of public
    health—as distinct from related fields that center on personal health care
    delivery and regulation—and supports that framework with rich material
    illustrating the intellectual, scientific, political, and ethical issues
    involved. It provides the basis for cross-disciplinary exchange between law
    and the various allied public health disciplines and complements texts in
    the fields of AIDS, human rights, health care, and health law. In proposing
    innovative solutions for the future of public health, Gostin's essential
    study provides a blueprint for future public and political debates on the
    questions this vital and burgeoning field engenders.


    Equinet Policy Series
    A review of experience concerning household ability to cope with the
    resource demands of ill health and health care utilisisation Jane Goudge and
    Veloshnee Govender. Available from:TARSC, 47, Van Praagh Avenue, Milton
    Park, Harare, Zimbabwe. US$5.00 [email protected]

    5. Household poverty

    March, 2001. "Choices for the Poor presents the results of a a comprehensive
    external evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the Poverty
    Strategies Initiative that was launched in 1996 by the United Nations
    Development Programme, together with the Government of Norway and other
    bilateral donors. Part I draws on the findings from a literature review
    based on poverty assessments and surveys, national human development reports
    and poverty reduction strategies prepared in some 50 countries around the
    world. Part II is based on an assessment of the activities sponsored by the
    programme in 18 countries visited by the evaluation team in early 2000:
    Angola, Bulgaria, Guatemala, India, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, the
    Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Nepal, Palestine, São Tomé e Principe,
    Tajikistan, Uganda, Uruguay and Zambia. The book demonstrates that despite
    comparable objectives, there is wide variation and contrast from one country
    to another. Most of the lessons, therefore, apply to specific national
    circumstances. There are, however, some general lessons that could be of
    great value for donors engaged in a process of stimulating policy change in
    their partner countries.

    For further details, a full list of contents and to view the press release,
    please visit The Policy Press web site at:
    Edited by David Gordon, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol and
    Peter Townsend, London School of Economics Published by The Policy Press,
    March 2001. 'Breadline Europe' examine poverty in Europe within the
    international framework agreed at the 1995 World Summit on Social
    Development. Its aim is to provide a scientific and international basis for
    the analysis and reduction of poverty. With contributions from leading
    European poverty researchers, it demonstrates that there is far more
    important research into the problem of poverty going on in many European
    countries than international agencies and national goverments admit or even
    realise. Main themes are: the need for a scientific poverty line; the need
    for better theories distinguishing between poverty and social exclusion; the
    need for better international social policy and for better policy-related
    analyses of poverty.

    Richard Bavier, Poverty Measurement Working Papers, U.S. Census Bureau,
    October 2000.
    Available online at:
    "Of all the recommendations and suggestions in the National Research
    Council's report, Measuring Poverty, A New Approach, probably the most
    controversial has been the proposal that medical needs not be included in
    the "basic bundle" of food, clothing, shelter, and "a little more" making up
    the recommended poverty budget. Rather, medical needs were to be the subject
    of a "medical care risk" index to be developed separately. Because medical
    needs were not to be included in the poverty budget, the panel also
    recommended that spending out-of-pocket on such needs be subtracted before
    each family's resources were tested against the thresholds.

    HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING; 16(1): 21–28 © Oxford University Press 2001
    Available as PDF file at:
    Ana Lucia Kassouf, Economics Department, ESALQ, University of São Paulo,
    Brazil, Martin Mckee, European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition,
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Elias Mossialos, London
    School of Economics and Political Science, UK
    "The debate about the appropriate policy response to child labour is
    complex, requiring a balance between protecting the health of the child and
    safeguarding the income of the family. These findings indicate the need for
    more research on the long-term sequelae of beginning work at an early age."


    Equinet Policy Series
    World Trade Organisation Agreements: implications for equity and health in
    Southern Africa
    G. Munot and V. Tyson. Available from:TARSC, 47, Van Praagh Avenue, Milton
    Park, Harare, Zimbabwe. US$5.00 [email protected]


    6. WTO, economic and social policy

    Watal, J., Center for International Development (CID), Harvard University,
    "Expenditures on medicines can represent up to 66% of total health spending
    in developing countries and could be a major cause of household
    impoverishment, as 50-90% of such expenditures are out-of-pocket expenses.
    Today, over one-third of the world’s population and over one-half of the
    poorest in Asia and Africa still lack access to essential drugs. However,
    policy instruments available under TRIPS, such as compulsory licenses or
    government use, parallel imports and price controls, if designed with care,
    could attenuate such adverse effects on the affordable access to medicines
    considered essential."


    Equinet Policy Series
    Health and Human Rights in the SADC Region Barbara Klugman and Nana
    Kgosidintsi. Available from:TARSC, 47, Van Praagh Avenue, Milton Park,
    Harare, Zimbabwe. US$5.00 [email protected]


    7. Human resources

    Available online at:
    "Several of the articles in this issue are based on papers that were
    presented at a recent symposium on “The Contribution of Human and Social
    Capital to Sustained Economic Growth and Well-being,” organized by the
    Applied Research Branch of Human Resources Development Canada, in
    conjunction with OECD. Social Capital is a key concept in the growing
    recognition of the interconnections between social and economic outcomes.
    Social capital is generally defined as the relationships, networks and norms
    that facilitate collective action. Some include trust in the definition but
    others, like Michael Woolcock, argue for keeping what social capital is
    distinct from what it does. Another fundamental distinction is often made
    between “bonding” and “bridging” social capital. Bonding social capital
    refers to those relationships and norms that strengthen ties within groups.
    Bridging refers to linking across groups. Social capital is closely related
    to both social cohesion and human capital, two other very important concepts
    in policy and policy research circles. As Tom Schuller says in his paper,
    “social capital is both a consequence and a producer of social cohesion.”
    Whereas social cohesion emphasizes processes and outcomes, social capital
    emphasizes the notion of investments and assets that bring benefits,
    benefits that are not fully appropriated by the individuals making the
    investments. And while human capital focuses on the individual agents who
    invest in education and training, social capital emphasizes the
    relationships and norms that link those individuals."


    Equinet Policy Series
    Public Participation in Health Systems. Rene Loewenson.
    Available from:TARSC, 47, Van Praagh Avenue, Milton Park, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    US$5.00 [email protected]


    8. Human rights and health

    Organisation: Harvard School of Public Health. Dates: 11-14 June 2001.
    Level: professional. Focus: This rigorous 4-day program helps a wide range
    of professionals acquire the skills and background knowledge they need to
    successfully incorporate a human rights framework into their daily
    activities. Participants will acquire a basic understanding of both the
    history and present status of international human rights and international
    humanitarian law as they apply to public health practice. Location: Boston


    Equinet Policy Series
    Equity in Health in Southern Africa: Turning Values into Practice. Equinet
    Steering Committe.
    Available from:TARSC, 47, Van Praagh Avenue, Milton Park, Harare, Zimbabwe
    US$5.00 [email protected]


    9. Research and Policy

    June 11-15, 2001 Boston, Massachusetts. As More research is conducted in
    developing countries, ethical issues that reflect differences in cultures,
    politics, wealth, standards of care, individual and group rights, and
    priorities are surfacing with increasing frequency. The present ethical
    codes are not always sufficient for the broad new set of problems faced by
    funders of international health research, members of Ethical Review Boards,
    government agencies, and researchers themselves.


    10. Popular participation / governance and health

    Commissioned by the Swiss Agency for Cooperation and Development
    (SDC-Mozambique) and the Mozambican Ministry of Health, this is the first
    study to provide baseline data on health perceptions, by beneficiaries and
    service providers, at the primary health care level. A total of 1,200
    households were interviewed in four provinces, namely Maputo Cidade,
    Nampula, Tete and Inhambane. Specifically, the study seeks to identify the
    attitudinal, geographical and financial barriers to access, assess the
    impact of user fees on access to health care, assess the use of traditional
    and modern health care and the relationship between the two, as well as
    identify mechanisms to allow communities to voice concerns and ensure
    accountability at local level.


    11. SADC News

    A new managerial structure adopted at the Southern African Development
    Community's (SADC) extraordinary summit in Windhoek last week would go a
    long way towards furthering regional coordination and cooperation, experts
    told IRIN on Tuesday.

    Southern African leaders have announced measures to rein in a controversial
    regional defence body chaired by Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe, who had
    battled to keep it under his control.


    Equinet Policy Series
    Public sector subsidies to the private health sector in Zimbabwe Oliver
    Mudyarabikwa. Available from:TARSC, 47, Van Praagh Avenue, Milton Park,
    Harare, Zimbabwe. US$5.00 [email protected]


    12. Letters and comments
    Give us your feedback on this newsletter! Send in information and articles
    on the work of your organisation, and on equity and health issues in
    Southern Africa. Send all letters and submissions to <[email protected]>


    13. Useful Resources
    St. Luke School of Medicine, Ghana and Liberia, West Africa, is now
    accepting applications for students wishing to study medicine online. The
    Basic Science curriculum (the first two years of medical school) will be
    presented online starting with Human Anatomy. This course is scheduled to
    begin May 14, 2001, leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree (M.D.). St. Luke
    SOM is only one of a few schools in the world to present this curriculum.
    St. Luke SOM is developing this curriculum to meet the needs of its African
    constituency. We are trying to develop ways to educate African peoples using
    the latest in modern technology. The curriculum is rigorous and
    comprehensive. Some scheduled onsite visits to our campuses in Africa are
    required. After successful completion of the online basic science program,
    the medical students must complete at least two years of clinical training
    in approved hospitals. For further information, please contact Dr. Jerroll
    Dolphin at
    <[email protected]> or link to the St. Luke School of Medicine website.

    For full information and access to sample articles from the
    encyclopedia, go to:
    The first major reference work in this multi-disciplinary field presenting
    over 200 articles, 50 bibliographies, 50 definitions and 50 acronyms. Taking
    a thematic approach rather than simply alphabetical, the encyclopedia
    includes theory, empirical studies and applications emphasising the inter
    relationship between various disciplines and systems. The structure reflects
    the current development of environmental research and will make the product
    useful for research and an advanced level teaching tool.

    What's New at EHP?
    Knowledge sharing forum in Nicaragua. Integrated baseline surveys in
    Madagascar. Strengthening vector control programs in Africa. Cost comparison
    of DDT and alternative insecticides for malaria control. Sanitation in small
    towns in Latin America and the Caribbean.
    EHP Spanish Page:
    EHP Activities Page:
    Information services:
    EHP Publications:



    Location: Blantyre, Malawi. Save the Children, a leading international
    child-centered relief and
    development agency is searching for an HIV/AIDS Advisor to be responsible
    for providing technical assistance to Umoyo Network NGO sub-grantees and PVO
    partners on HIV/AIDS. The incumbent will work directly with staff of
    sub-grantees, PVO partners and their staff to build their capacity to
    implement quality HIV/AIDS prevention. Technical assistance will occur at
    all program stages including program design, implementation, monitoring and
    evaluation. Additionally, the incumbent will serve as a member of Umoyo's
    Senior Management Team. Qualifications: Masters Degree in Public Health
    (MPH, DrPH, PhD, MD); 3-5 years professional experience in HIV/AIDS program
    design and management, preferably in Sub-Saharan Africa; 2-3 years
    experience in community-based health programming; strong monitoring and
    evaluation skills, English fluency.To apply, please e-mail CV to Joanne
    Derwallis <[email protected]>

    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Liverpool School of Tropical
    Medicine, Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory and Centre for Medical
    Parasitology, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Senior lecturer/lecturer in postgraduate education, London School of Hygiene
    & Tropical Medicine, (Ref: BG-LDN). Senior lecturer/lecturer in postgraduate
    education with interest/expertise in the development of web-based/multimedia
    teaching material, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, (Ref: BG-LIV).
    Senior lecturer/senior adviser in medical education, Danish Bilharziasis
    Laboratory and Centre for Medical Parasitology, Copenhagen, Denmark, (Ref:
    The holders of these positions will jointly be responsible for establishing
    and supporting a programme of postgraduate training on research and control
    of malaria in collaboration with overseas centres in Ghana, Malawi, Tanzania
    and The Gambia as a component of a research and training programme on
    malaria supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The training
    programme will involve both conventional course work and distance-based
    learning. An appointment of 3 to 5 years will be offered dependent upon
    previous experience. Annual salaries for positions in the UK will be in the
    range of GBP 18,731 - GBP 39,241, monthly salaries in Denmark will be in the
    range 30,000 - 33,000 DKr. For further information on the institutions see:
    <> for the London School of Hygiene & Tropical
    Medicine, <> for the Liverpool School of Tropical
    Medicine, <> for the Danish Bilharziasis
    Laboratory, Copenhagen and <> for the Centre for Medical
    Parasitology, Copenhagen. Further details relating to the jobs may be
    obtained from Brian Greenwood <[email protected]> Marcel Hommel
    <[email protected]> or Niels Oernbjerg <[email protected]> Further
    particulars on how to apply for all three of these positions can be obtained
    from: The Personnel Officer, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
    <[email protected]> quoting the appropriate reference. The closing date
    for applications is 27 April 2001.

    November 27th December 5th 2001, Cape Town, South Africa
    HIV/AIDS and TB present an enormous challenge to the public health of
    sub-Saharan Africa. An 8-day workshop, which aims to highlight the research
    issues around these diseases, will be held at the University of Cape Town
    from November 27th to December 5th 2001. This will include overviews on
    epidemiology, immunology and pathogenesis, virology and bacteriology as well
    as treatment issues and prospects for vaccination. In addition there will be
    sessions on how to write a grant application, how to prepare a manuscript
    for publication as well as updates on the latest techniques and information
    technology. It will also be an excellent opportunity to meet other
    researchers in the field. A number of prominent international and local
    speakers have been invited.

    The Workshop is supported by a Grant from the Wellcome Trust and sponsored
    by the South African Medical Research Council. All travel, accommodation and
    subsistence costs will be covered. Applicants must be currently and actively
    involved in laboratory-based research into HIV/AIDS or TB. Preference will
    be given to applications from Africa and from those involved in projects in
    Africa. The workshop is aimed at pre-doctoral students and recent
    post-doctoral fellows and is limited to 30 participants. Please send a copy
    of your CV including publications, a motivation for why you wish to
    participate in the Workshop, a brief account of your research as well as 2
    sealed referees reports to: Carole Roberts, Medical Research Council, PO Box
    19070, 7505 TYGERBERG, South Africa. <[email protected]> Tel 21-938
    0359 Fax 21-938 0368. Closing date for application is 31 May 2001. Note:
    Should you not receive a reply from me within five working days of sending
    your mail, please contact: Ms Heidi Josephs at <[email protected]>

    9-11 May 2001, London, England. World leaders in health philanthropy will
    convene in London for an
    Inaugural Global Health Philanthropy Summit, to be held at the Royal College
    of Physicians from 9-11 May 2001. The Academy for International Health
    Philanthropy's Summit will address how philanthropists can make a greater
    and lasting impact on world health by pooling knowledge and by more
    effective targetting of their support. Registrations applications are
    available at the AIHP website <> or e-mail
    <[email protected]>

    Bergen, Norway 17 - 19 August 2001
    The main theme of the conference is social inequality and inequity in
    health. The 16th Nordic Conference in Social Medicine & Public Health is
    arranged on behalf of the national associations of social medicine and
    public health in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden by the Section
    for Social Medicine at the Department of Public Health and Primary Health
    Care, University of Bergen.

    The March 2001 issue of Immunization Focus, an "e-published" quarterly from
    the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is now available on
    the GAVI website. In this issue: Special Feature - First, do no harm:
    mapping the road to injection safety. Grassroots - Introducing hepatitis B
    vaccine: a practical guide from countries that have done it already.The Idea
    Exchange - a new section for debates on topical issues. In the first
    contribution, Catriona Waddington, a health economist for the UK Department
    for International Development (one of the donors to the Global Fund for
    Children's Vaccines), asks whether GAVI and na-
    tional governments have got their priorities right, and Tore Godal,
    executive secretary of GAVI, responds.Feel free to download, print and
    distribute the entire issue, or specific articles or excerpts. If you have
    any questions about GAVI or Immunization Focus, please write to
    us:<[email protected]>
    or <[email protected]>

    Call for abstracts, papers, organizers, volunteers. Join the GhaCLAD List
    and help with planning and organizing the upcoming 3rd International
    Conference on Computer Literacy, Distance Education & Health/Medicine in
    Africa [Aided by Info Technology].

    There is an initiative in Namibia to create music and songs about HIV and
    AIDS. We are trying to find African groups and persons who already have done
    some (positive) music and songs about HIV and AIDS for co-operation and
    sharing ideas. Please contact Mr. Sakari Loytty <[email protected]> in
    for further details and sharing of ideas.


    This newsletter reaches individuals in NGOs, international organizations and
    networks, funding agencies and foundations, governments, and the private
    sector. We can provide free advertising space for non-profits, although
    space is limited. Contact us for details.

    The Network on Equity in Health in Southern Africa (EQUINET) is a network of
    research, civil society and health sector organisations seeking to influence
    policy on health in southern Africa. EQUINET aims to build alliances leading
    to positive policies on health both at local and regional levels. We do this
    by disseminating information and stimulating an informed debate on equity in
    health in Southern Africa. Further details about EQUINET are available at

    Equinet-l is an electronic newsletter produced for the Network for Equity in
    Health in Southern Africa (EQUINET) by fahamu (

    The views expressed in this newsletter do not necessarily represent those of
    Equinet or fahamu.

    (c) fahamu & Equinet, 2001

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    MEDIA UPDATE # 2001/11

    Monday 12th March to Sunday 18th March 2001


    Of note in the week is the extent to which the Zimbabwe Independent (March 16) relied on unconfirmed reports for its front-page stories. Although it is generally accepted that the privately owned media is severely handicapped when trying to access information from government and the public due to the politically intolerant climate, in the interests of the public, of fairness and of its own credibility, the media have an obligation to seek and publish comment from opposing sides. In The Zimbabwe Independent's stories however, there was no indication that the reporters had tried to access comment from
    the government, Zanu PF, Department of Information or the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe.
    MEDIA UPDATE # 2001/11
    Monday 12th March to Sunday 18th March 2001

    1. Report on broadcasting regulations receives muffled coverage
    2. Violence: State media ignores "state" violence
    3. Jurists visit: Media omits essential detail
    4. Press gives satisfactory coverage to fuel situation

    Of note in the week is the extent to which the Zimbabwe
    Independent (March 16) relied on unconfirmed reports for its
    front-page stories. All four reports, “Government Seizes IPG
    fuel”, “Zanu PF wants Chanakira out”, “More purges at state
    media” and “RBZ to fix exchange rate,” only relied on
    “authoritative” anonymous sources and failed to balance them
    by verifying the allegations with the parties involved.
    Although it is generally accepted that the privately owned
    media is severely handicapped when trying to access
    information from government and the public due to the
    politically intolerant climate, in the interests of the public, of
    fairness and of its own credibility, the media have an obligation
    to seek and publish comment from opposing sides. In The
    Zimbabwe Independent’s stories however, there was no
    indication that the reporters had tried to access comment from
    the government, Zanu PF, Department of Information or the
    Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe.
    The public was also subjected to similar bias in the state owned
    Zimpapers and ZBC. Some of the major issues of the week, such
    as the controversy over the legitimacy of the adverse report on
    broadcasting regulations, an international jurists’ fact-finding
    mission to Zimbabwe and political violence allegedly perpetrated by
    the opposition, would have greatly benefited from an equitable
    allocation of voices from the opposition and political commentators.

    The parliamentary legal committee’s report on the broadcasting
    regulations attracted wide media response in the week.
    Attorney General Chigovera defended the regulations, which, he
    said, complied with section 20 (2) of the Constitution (ZBC TV,
    15/3, 8pm & 17/3, 8pm “Question and Answer”). It was difficult to
    make sense of the report not only because of unexplained legal
    jargon, but also because it failed to mention that the parliamentary
    committee’s report the previous week, had found some sections of
    the regulations to be unconstitutional.
    This week’s reports merely reiterated the government’s original
    position that airwaves are a “finite resource” and therefore needed
    to be regulated. Regulation of the airwaves is necessary only to
    allow for the orderly use of the airwaves. It should not be used as a
    means of government control over who has access to the airwaves
    and what is broadcast.
    In all bulletins monitored, ZBC Radio ignored the discourse
    altogether. Instead it chose to use its bulletins to air a Zanu (PF)
    invitation calling all Zanu PF parliamentarians to an extraordinary
    meeting on the broadcasting Bill (14/3 6pm and 8pm ZBCTV &
    Radio 15/03 6am-8am). Radio 2/4 (17/3, 6am and ZBCTV 16/3
    8pm) quoted Minister of Justice, Legal and Parliamentary Affairs,
    Patrick Chinamasa, denying The Daily News and The Zimbabwe
    Independent stories reporting that he had criticized Edison Zvobgo
    and Kumbirai Kangai. Kangai and Zvobgo are members of the
    Parliamentary Legal committee.
    The Herald (16/03) and The Daily News (16/03) reported that
    Chinamasa, had declared the parliamentary report “null and void”
    because the Legal Committee tasked with the evaluation of the
    regulations had failed to beat the deadline. Although the facts in
    the two papers were essentially the same, it is noteworthy that The
    Daily News (16/03) headline, “Chinamasa hits out at Zvobgo,
    Kangai” was misleading. The headline gave the impression that
    these were intra-party wrangles, whereas the issue was clearly
    about whether parliamentary procedure had been followed in writing
    and tabling the report.
    The Standard’s (18/03) follow-up to the issue, headlined,
    ‘Chinamasa lied’, was weakened by an over-dependence on just
    one member of the committee, MDC MP, Welshman Ncube. The
    headline and the subtitle “Report to Parliament cheap politicking”
    hinged on accusations refuted by Chinamasa, who challenged
    Ncube to produce minutes of the report.

    The state media has consistently ignored the massive human
    rights abuses perpetrated by police and the army in the high-
    density suburbs in favour of reports about violence allegedly
    perpetrated by the opposition. The reverse is true about the private
    press (The Daily News), which has consistently covered violence in
    the high-density suburbs and rarely reported stories implicating the
    MDC. But the court story in The Herald (13/03) ‘MDC youths
    charged with public violence’, did not only limit itself to the court
    proceedings of 14 MDC youths who allegedly attacked six
    Mabvuku residents for defecting to the MDC, as it should have
    done, it also unnecessarily referred to cases of the MDC president,
    Tsvangirai and his vice, Gibson Sibanda. Although the ZBC quoted
    Learnmore Jongwe accusing Zanu (PF) of staging the alleged
    defections (ZBC, 12/3, 8pm) the editorial decision in placing stories
    of alleged violence next to other crime reports perpetuates a Zanu
    (PF)-created stereotype that the MDC is a violent party. A report on
    13/3 8pm (ZBCTV) in which three alleged defectors said that
    Jongwe could not deny defections when youths were appearing in
    court for attacking defectors was positioned next to a crime story.
    Another ZBCTV report on the 15th (8pm) not only billed the alleged
    MDC assault on defectors in the headline alongside a general
    crime report, but sandwiched the story between two crime stories
    in the body of the story.
    The private press, particularly the Daily News, has generally been
    focused and consistent in reporting political violence and human
    rights abuses by agents of the state, political parties and war
    veterans, but has been guilty of the same bias as the state media.
    For example, the stories ‘Man’s leg broken after agreeing to testify
    against MP: Court told’ (12/03), War vets linked to cabbage theft
    (13/03), and Mahachi allegedly threatened to kill MDC supporters
    (15/03) projected the MDC as victims of political violence and Zanu
    PF as the perpetrators. The Daily News chose to omit stories
    reflecting the opposite.


    The state-media reported an international jurists’ meeting with
    President Mugabe from the basis of unsubstantiated claims of
    Ministers Moyo and Chinamasa. The private press on the other
    hand, completely failed in its duties as a media to provide
    information about the visit. It only gave coverage to the visit when it
    printed a statement from the jurists countering Minister
    Chinamasa’s accusations.
    All media presented one-perspective reports on this visit. ZBC and
    Zimpapers reported and prominently positioned the jurists’ meeting
    with President Mugabe and emphasized Minister Moyo and
    Chinamasa’s views that the fact-finding mission was “stage-
    managed” because they had only held meetings with whites and
    those against the land reform (ZBC, 16/3, 8pm and Zimpapers
    dailies, 17/3.) However, basic information was missing from their
    reports. Who are these jurists? Who did they visit? What were the
    terms of reference of their visit? This information was easily and
    readily available from the jurists themselves.
    The Standard (18/03) only gave the views of the International Bar
    Association (IBA). In the story ‘Bar Association dismisses
    remarks’, the paper reported that the IBA stated that it had been
    disappointed by Minister Chinamasa’s comments because they
    had not even written the report that would reflect their conclusions.
    The Daily News (20/03- not in the week reviewed) made a delayed
    effort to give the same views of the jurists regarding Chinamasa’s
    The official views continued to dominate in The Herald (19/03) with
    claims that “there were some judges who went out of their way
    to attack war veterans”. This was given as the explanation to the
    IBA on why relations between the war vets and the judges had

    The acute shortage of fuel in Harare was given due prominence and
    adequate coverage in the press. The Herald (13/03) reported that
    the crisis could be attributed to the failure by NOCZM to pay for the
    product before it was pumped from Feruka in Mutare.
    The Daily News (16/03) also gave due prominence to the
    deteriorating fuel crisis. The paper attributed the crisis to scarce
    foreign currency and the floods in Mozambique that are said to
    have hampered some fuel deliveries in Zimbabwe. However, the fuel
    position was not clear to members of the public. Whilst The Herald
    (17/03) and radio 1/3 (17/03 6am-8am) announced that a $9 billion
    oil facility had been secured with a US financial institution, The
    Sunday Mail (18/03) and the electronic media (18/03 8pm) reported
    that Minister Simba Makoni was leading a delegation to South
    Africa which included the Minister of Mines and Energy whose
    main mission was to negotiate with Sasol Trading International, to
    normalize the fuel shortages. The report quoted Makoni, who said
    the fuel situation would only go back to normal when the economy

    This report was produced and distributed by the Media Monitoring
    Project Zimbabwe, 221 Fife Avenue, Harare, Tel/fax: 263 4 734207,
    733486, E-mail: [email protected], Web:
    Feel free to respond to MMPZ. We cannot be able to respond to
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    Balancing Act News Update


    Cape Town is one of the few cities on the African continent that can make a
    claim for being a creative city. News Update's Russell Southwood looks at
    what this means, why it's important to the development of new media in
    Africa and how Cape Town measures up when looked at from this viewpoint.
    Cape Town is one of the few cities on the African continent that can make a
    claim for being a creative city. News Update's Russell Southwood looks at
    what this means, why it's important to the development of new media in
    Africa and how Cape Town measures up when looked at from this viewpoint.

    If our correspondent is "off the mark" or you have factual amendments, mail
    them to us and we will include them in subsequent News Updates. If you'd
    like to contribute, write and let us know.

    If you need information about a particular place or issue, just send your
    questions in. We are always happy to follow up on readers concerns.

    If you want to subscribe to News Update, simply send a message saying I want
    to subscribe to [email protected] Also if you no longer wish to
    subscribe, simply send a message saying I no longer want to subscribe to the
    same address.



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    URGENT ANNOUNCEMENT: Dans le cadre de l'organisation de la fête de
    l'internet au Bénin édition 2001, les associations ORIDEV et ISOC Bénin
    organisent un Forum de discussion thématique sur l'internet au Bénin. Ce
    Forum appelé Forum I-Bénin, durera 45 jours et aura lieu à partir du 03
    mars. Trois thémes seront discutées pendant ce forum : 1/ Amélioration de la
    connectivité au Bénin 2/ Mise en oeuvre d'un NIC au Bénin 3/ Promotion de
    contenu béninois sur Internet Chaque théme sera discuté durant deux
    semaines. Chacun de ces thémes sera introduit par un texte rédigé par un
    spécialiste de la question. Toute personne s'intéressant aux Nouvelles
    Technologies, étudiant(e), professionnel(le) de l'informatique ou de
    l'internet, fournisseurs d'accès, et particulier, peut s'abonner au Forum.

    Pour ce faire, vous pouvez:
    a/ soit envoyer un message à l'adresse [email protected] avec comme
    contenu du message subscribe forum-oridev-isoc. Tous les messages adressés
    à cette adresse doivent être en texte simple (pas de format html).
    b/ soit aller à la page
    <> pour une inscription en ligne. Un message
    de confirmation vous sera envoyé.


    Normally News Update focuses fairly closely on African new media content,
    technology and the regulatory frameworks that control these two areas. In
    this one-off, special issue we take the lens out a little wider to focus on
    a range of issues that will be crucial to a concern about whether Africa
    will make its mark in international content markets.

    Cape Town played host to an important set of conferences at the beginning of
    the month. The G8 Dot Force met followed by the African Telecommunications
    Union's Ministerial Oversight Committee and then the Commonwealth Expert
    Group on Information Technology. At the same time there was the Fourth
    International Design Indaba (see Ravi Naidoo,
    host of this year's event wants it to become the "Cannes" (the annual
    international film festival in France) of the international design sector.
    Cape Town is clearly putting itself on the international map in a way that
    could make it a creative city.

    What is a creative city? Internationally, you can say quite easily that
    places like New York, Los Angeles, London and Paris are powerhouses for the
    production of content that is sold all over the world. Things happen
    creatively in cities that exert a powerful gravitational pull on creative
    people, both culturally and economically. For example, if you want to make a
    big budget movie, you'll need to be in Los Angeles for some time. The giants
    of English-language publishing are found in London and New York. Design "hot
    spots" are better distributed but are nearly always close to major creative

    So why is the existence of creative cities important to the development of
    new media in Africa? Because the technology is simply "a big biro". Unless
    you've got something to say (and/or to sell), you will not attract
    attention. In the developed world's content markets there is a voracious
    appetite for new ideas and influences from other cultures. The effect of
    what is sometimes called the "three minute culture" can often mean that this
    interest often has an extremely short time-span before it moves on to the
    next new thing.

    The "buzz" of new ideas comes from creative people being immersed in a wide
    range of experiences and influences. This tends to happen in cities where
    cultures collide in the same breath as social problems. Africa is largely
    rural and its cities are not always memorable in a positive sense. But it
    will tend to be out of these cities that the exciting cultural ideas and
    products will come. This won't exclude rural experiences or a relationship
    with those in rural areas but the skills required to articulate these
    experiences will tend to continue to be found in cities. Without these
    skills, new media in Africa will remain a one-way traffic going North-South.
    South Africa has the content and technical skills to reverse this flow. Cape
    Town is potentially a bridgehead for that process,

    The factors that lead to the growth of a creative city are outlined below.
    Against these headings, we look at how Cape Town measures up:

    * A critical mass of creative people with access to technical resources

    Most African economies remain production-oriented (for example, mining)
    rather than consumer or service-oriented. When we visited four African
    countries for the first issue of News Update (4.1), the number of designers
    in each was quite small with the exception of Kenya. Likewise their
    advertising and broadcast sectors. Cape Town is a positive giant using this
    kind of head count.

    According to Alan Levin of the Cape Information Technology Initiative
    (CITI), there are 40-50 internet and technology companies in Cape Town, 35
    of which are members of CITI. Although the majority of South Africa's
    technology companies are clustered in Gauteng, Cape Town has a profile as
    the place where the creative content work gets done. It is also home to a
    number of large companies (M-Web, World Online) and several of the larger
    ISPs. However Cape Town is too small as a city by itself to support a wide
    range of companies so most market their work beyond the City's boundaries to
    Johannesburg-based companies and elsewhere.

    One of CITI's major initiatives is the Bandwidth Barn that seeks to create
    an ICT cluster in a 4000 sq m building in central Cape Town that offers
    excellent bandwidth in the local context. This serviced office premises is
    home to 25 companies with access to file-serving and groupware across the

    On a broader front, it is claimed that South African advertising agencies
    are consistent winners at international competitions and are regarded as the
    most polished producers outside Britain and America. Not all are based in
    Cape Town but a significant number are found there. The allied film industry
    generates around R2 billion annually in an average of four to six film
    shoots a day in the Cape Town summer season. There is a spread of design
    companies who are earning a significant proportion of their income in
    overseas markets. South Africa often produces some of the freshest design
    and craft products and these are found in some profusion in Cape Town.

    However, unless Cape Town's creative companies can expand their markets
    internationally, its creative ambitions remain on shaky ground. The
    vulnerability of these "assets" is perhaps best exemplified by the
    "pull-back" at M-Web (see below) and the recent closure of Dockside (more in
    issue 52 to follow).

    * Plural legislative framework for content production and independence of

    Creative people need the freedom to express themselves and sufficient
    independence to be able to develop their ideas. Neither of these qualities
    is widely available on the African continent. Too many of its politicians
    fear the bracing effects of free expression. Under admittedly difficult
    circumstances, the current generation of ANC politicians are remarkably
    thin-skinned. Nonetheless Cape Town and more widely South Africa as a whole
    has a widely respected old media in its newspapers.

    However in the more sensitive field of broadcasting, things are much less
    well developed. The SABC/ETV duopoly produces only a small amount of local
    content and from the little we saw, not much of it is remarkable. Perhaps
    the economic underpinning for this type of local content is hard to find:
    people who lack purchasing power are poor prospects for TV advertisers. The
    ambitions of the consortium that launched ETV may have been too "scattergun"
    and the company has had to be rescued by Rembrandt.

    Sources close to the Government say that it will look again at broadcasting
    once it has got through the Telkom IPO and the opening up of the telecomms
    market. There has been some discussion about the possibility of regional
    broadcasters and this would greatly strengthen Cape Town's position. However
    the underlying question of size of market remains.

    Politicians and regulators could do worse than look at what has been
    achieved in the UK through uncoupling the production and commissioning
    roles. Broadcasters need not contain both these functions. With the UK's
    Channel 4 acting effectively as a "publisher" rather than a production
    entity, its output lead to the creation of a large number of independent
    production companies that helped the growth of the media sector in the UK.
    This growth was underpinned with the parallel growth of post-production
    facilities. With media being digital, the convergence of broadcast and new
    media has opened a whole fresh field of potential growth opportunities.
    There is no need for slavish copying but there are lessons in growing the
    broadcast sector as an important content producer.

    In a parallel field, many we spoke to were concerned to see a proper
    licensing framework for community radio. There needs to be more flexibility
    so it is possible to see if there is the stamina and skills required to make
    a station a success. Stations of this kind can act as the "A & R" research
    function for larger commercial stations. Local music producers can get their
    music heard and a local market for music can take off even amongst the
    poorest of the poor. Reggae in Jamaica grew up out of the slums of Kingston.

    * The ability to take cultural influences from a wide range of sources and
    make them your own

    A music like reggae came out a wide range of influences. Over time it beg,
    stole or borrowed its influences but made each thing it acquired its own. It
    stayed rooted in its local context but negotiated an ever widening sphere of
    influence and markets. This negotiation between the locally produced
    cultural product and the internationally sold is not without pain. Things
    need to be changed to make them accessible to other people. Trends come and
    go. No-one group of people is more aware of this than Africa's musicians
    themselves who have been feted and left more than once.

    However the most interesting culture that has had any purchase on people's
    "mindspace" and in international markets has come come about from the mixing
    (or creative tensions) between cultures. A UK visitor to the Design Indaba
    captured that spirit:"Cape Town feels like a town in flux, and it's this
    disequilibrium that can be such a fertile ground for creativity. It's really
    how this flux progresses and resolves that will determine how the creative
    environment in South Africa develops."

    In a short time in a city, it is difficult to spot the different ways in
    which the processes of cultural change and fusion are taking place. But
    always it is about how creative people seek to "push the envelope" in terms
    of existing forms or ways in which users can do things. And this process
    remains in tension with traditional cultures and received ways of doing
    things. Metaphorically it's like the wire sculpture radios on sale in Cape
    Town. It's about blending a culture of production that is uniquely South
    African with a modern twist.

    * Ability to deal with regional and international markets

    All creative cities worldwide have the ability to deal with both their
    regional and international markets. This makes them interesting to other
    content buyers and assures their place on the map. In turn your markets
    (both national and regional) have to be large enough to warrant attention.
    If you're over 12 hours or more by air from your main international markets,
    there has to be a lot of good reasons for them to come and see you.

    Cape Town has the potential to be the actual (rather than virtual) creative
    portal to South African content markets and a range of other regional
    markets in Africa. (A small diversion: Why Cape Town rather than
    Johannesburg? Try visiting downtown Jo'burg without an armed guard and no,
    creatives don't do business in the suburbs. Tell me that the fear of crime
    in that city does not place clear physical limits on the mixing of cultures
    described in the previous section.)

    Cape Town is base for one the continent's largest African ISPs, M-Web and a
    division of UUNet. However the recent launch of ABSA's free ISP (in
    association with the UK's Affinity PLC) means that M-Web has cut back on
    staff and halted its expansion into the rest of Africa. Tanya Aconne, its
    Executive Producer for content outside South Africa has left to go to UNICEF
    to work on their web development.

    ABSA's move could not have come at a worse time for M-Web. It has achieved
    260,000 subscribers and although in subscription terms its breakeven point
    is still some way off, the distance to be covered is not as great as you
    might imagine. It sees the free subscription ISP as a short-term threat but
    one that it will see off in the medium term. ABSA has attracted over 60,000
    subscribers and the only other "free" ISP Excess I-Net is believed to have
    only 40,000 subscribers. Since Affinity is paying ABSA for each subscriber,
    it is simply a question of how deep their pockets are. Some say a year but
    nobody really knows. M-Web claims that its "walled garden" strategy of
    restricting content to paying subscribers (a sort of AOL in reverse) is
    working and that they're holding the line in subscription terms.

    Notwithstanding these short-term local difficulties, M-Web is well placed to
    expand in content terms. Its parent company owns magazines and newspapers, a
    digital satellite channel (that sells across the continent), interesting
    technology companies and an education company. Not a bad hand from which to
    start to address regional and international markets but will they be
    interested in doing it through new rather than re-used content?

    The difficulty for Cape Town (and South Africa generally) is that even
    though it is one of the continent's largest markets in all senses it remains
    small in content terms. Something pretty amazing has got to happen to put
    the spotlight on Cape Town that goes beyond the odd bit of international
    work and occasional conferences. Jamaica and reggae were put on the map
    internationally through the success of the film The Harder They Come. Other
    countries like Australia have made their presence felt through film and
    broadcasting. It supported its film industry for both cultural and economic
    reasons. It is hard to be suggesting the idea of supporting local
    film-makers when there are so many pressing social concerns but maybe that
    is what it will take.

    Cape Town (and South Africa more generally) has the talent and probably the
    ideas to become a presence in the international league. It has the potential
    to become a creative city but only its ideas and talent will show whether it
    can lay its hands on that elusive status.


    Some of the ideas used in this article have been drawn from two books and an
    article: The Creative City, Charles Landry, Comedia and Bass Culture - When
    Reggae was King, Lloyd Barrett. The latter is a history of reggae music and
    its spread around the world. The article Designed in SA was published in the
    March 2001 issue of City Life and some quotes are taken from it.


    This news round-up and snippets comes from the first day of public
    presentations to the Commonwealth Expert Group on Information Technology
    looking at ways of tackling the digital divide (5-7 March 2001). This group
    reports later in the middle of the year and we will cover its conclusions:


    Pity poor Kenwyn Austin, the Commonwealth expert from Trinidad and Tobago.
    He was told that a visa was not needed for entry to South Africa as he had a
    South African government invitation and also a valid passport. His long
    journey started with a 15 hour flight via New York to Cape Town. Despite
    showing his official invitation, he was told he needed a visa. He then paid
    for the visa application and waited for five hours before being told that he
    was officially denied entry to South Africa. He then had to return to
    Trinidad on a flight that took a further 18 hours. There were similar
    difficulties in the UK at the ACT 99 Summit in Cambridge when a number of
    African delegates were denied entry to the UK. Whilst we understand that
    Immigration authorities everywhere have a job to do, why do they always fail
    to play a helpful role just when you need it most?


    The meeting received a presentation providing a statistical framework for
    the digital divide within the Commonwealth from the Commonwealth
    Telecommunications Organisation. Based on 1998/99 data, it can take up to
    ten years to get a phone in the following countries: Gambia, Lesotho, Malawi
    and Zambia. Others that are remarkably slow in providing what their people
    will actually pay for are: Kenya (6.5 years), Swaziland (5.8), Mozambique
    (4.2), Nigeria (4.2), Zimbabwe (4.2) and Tanzania (3.6). Whilst there have
    clearly been improvements in some of these countries since these statistics
    were provided, others have only made slow progress in offering phone
    connections. According to the African Telecommunications Union, a phone
    connection cost four times as much in Africa as it does in the USA (US$2000
    as against US$500).

    This failure to provide landlines has caused a rapid growth in mobile
    connections. So for example Malawi which is a "fixed line laggard" has
    experienced faster than average growth rates (200%) in mobile connections.
    Outside the meeting, one private sector person even told me that his mobile
    connection out of Nigeria was faster than the landlines there. According to
    the presentation by Guy Giradet, the CTO's Special Development Adviser, the
    cost of internet access (based on 20 hours off-peak use) in Uganda is just
    under half the price of that found in Kenya.

    There are of course in the words of UK politician Benjamin Disraeli three
    kinds of lies:"lies, damned lies and statistics". One person I spoke to at
    the meeting told me that he was aware of one African country who simply made
    up the statistics it submitted to the ITU.


    The Commonwealth Meeting was timed to take place just after the G8 Dot Force
    Meeting also in Cape Town. A wide range of people I spoke to said that the
    Dot Force has not yet come up with many compelling ideas. The draft report
    to the meeting provides a remarkably clear analysis of the nature of the
    problem. It only slightly slips away when the authors offer a
    three-dimensional matrix of the issues, a device that may lead to an
    "understanding divide". We should think in three dimensions but few of us
    do. Should you change the world in this respect or change the matrix?

    Although the Dot Force has yet to come to recommendations, we believe that
    it will propose "baskets of initiatives" with broad generic subject headings
    like human resources. The UK and Canadian private sector representatives put
    proposals for a tax relief scheme to encourage venture capital investment
    for those on the other side of the digital divide. The proposal is for tax
    relief in the host country for investments of this kind in poorer countries.
    Japan is talking of putting US$15 billion into Dot Force initiatives,
    however its money is often "tied" to the supply of Japanese products.

    At the Commonwealth meeting, Chair of the Commonwealth Group Andile Ngcaba
    came up with an ingenious structural way of addressing the issue:"We can't
    develop policies and regulations that are homogenous." So he proposed a
    "t-rate" (rather like the e-rate for education). Where phone connection
    levels are below 1-2% of the population, the phone company will offer
    concessionary rates to telecentres and their equivalents.


    Wherever you start in the digital divide discussion, it's not long before
    you find yourself back discussing telecentres or some version of this idea.
    There were several excellent presentations on telecentres and their like,
    particularly from South African organisations. According to Peter Benjamin
    of the University of Witswatersrand Link Centre, there are 547 "community
    ICT sites" throughout South Africa. In addition there are 2000 Vodacom
    phoneshops and 2000 Schoolnet sites. The density of this provision makes
    South Africa an interesting test-bed for the many different approaches to
    tackling the digital divide.

    At the heart of the discussion is the thorny problem of who pays: what's the
    business model? Guy Giradet of the CTO summarised the advantages and
    disadvantages of a range of commercial and subsidised approaches. So for
    example Peru's commercial Cabinas Publicas have driven down access prices
    from US$1.40 to US$0.70 and 33% of their users had incomes below the poverty
    line. NGO telecentres reach poorer people more effectively but have to be
    paid for. He made the point that ICT access is more than just telephones and
    needs to include radio and multimedia PCs.

    Outside of the meeting almost everyone I spoke to about telecentres in South
    Africa - whether from the private sector or NGOs - was sceptical about how
    well used they were. One example I was given was of a rural telecentre where
    the telephone line was not working, it had only 4 PCs and the person running
    it had not been trained. This not to condemn the idea but only to note that
    the scale of skills required to make them effective may not always be in


    Shafika Isaacs of Schoolnet presented a summary of its members' work across
    the continent and the preliminary results of a recent evaluation study.
    Overall Schoolnet has projects in 25 countries, a little over half of the
    countries on the continent. To give some idea of the scale of the "catch-up"
    needed in education, in South Africa (one of the continent's more advanced
    countries in this respect) Schoolnet SA only has projects in 2000 out of the
    country's 25,000 schools.

    Although the evaluation study of nine schools found that it was "too early
    to draw conclusions" it raised a series of issues that will need to be
    addressed. It found that there were problems with providing sufficient
    teacher training to make equipment effectively used and there were problems
    with phone lines: in some instances, equipment was still in its boxes.

    Except in Arab Africa, all school projects are "donor-dependent". This
    dependency has the effect of disempowering the host countries.
    Understandably, individuals and organisations take on a "donor dependent"
    mentality. One African I spoke to summed this up rather well:"(This
    governmernt department) applied to an international donor for 2 PCs. If its
    ministers had had simply one less Mercedes Benz, they could have bought
    10-20 PCs." At heart, unless African economies are generating more wealth,
    this dependency will continue to exert a powerful effect on the mindset of
    those involved in overcoming the digital divide. And by extension the
    broader problems of their countries.


    One of the bonuses of South Africa's recent, controversial defence deals has
    been the setting up of Atelsat (Pty). Its Swedish Chair Ivan Ofverholm (ex
    Saab) presented its plans to the meeting. He started his presentation by
    demonstrating the latest generation of mobile phone. It clips behind the ear
    and has a lightweight mouthpiece that extends in front of your mouth. It has
    the effect of making you look like participant in an outer space drama like
    Star Wars. When he bought it he raised this difficulty with the seller who
    assured him that in a year everybody would be wearing and it would be
    quickly accepted.

    Atelsat is launching in 2003 and aims to manufacture satellites to provide
    additional capacity on the continent. Not surprisingly its Chair is bullish
    about the expansion of capacity in prospect over the next ten years. Atelsat
    will will work with a local partner, Spatial Technologies (Gideon Njenje).
    We await developments with interest.


    Whilst waiting to pass through immigration at Cape Town airport, I overheard
    a fascinating conversation. Two executives were discussing whether or not
    bribes should be given to obtain business. One of them was complaining:"He
    asked me for US$10,000 to give to a politician. It was stupid. He knew I
    couldn't do that. I only make US$25 (per unit) on that product."


    "South Africa is both first world and third worlde...With 5 million cell
    phones, people tell us we can be a laboratory for the rest of Africa. I'm
    not sure I want to be a guinea pig!"



    The murky underside of South Africa's recent defence deals has been much in
    evidence. Depending on what paper you read, Bheki Jacobs who has provided
    much of the evidence surfacing is either a highly trained ANC inteligence
    operative or an imposter. For an incisive look at who it claims paid what to
    who go to the Noseweek site ( For more analysis
    see .

    What South Africa really needs is a version of India's Tehelka. It got two
    reporters to pose as arms dealers peddling "fourth generation thermal
    hand-held cameras" on behalf of a British company. The cameras and the
    company were a fantasy but that did not deter officers, defence ministry
    officials and politicians from offering to smooth the way to a deal. The
    Tehelka reporters caught several doing so on camera and several accepting
    money to do so. The film captured was put up on its web site.
    (source: UK's Economist)


    For an alternative to the rather more sedate pleasures of South Africa's
    Wine and Garden routes, it's worth considering a visit to the Wild Coast
    between East London and Port Edward. Port St Johns has a fine oven-baked
    pizza and pasta restaurant called Gekko Moon overlooking the beach and river
    mouth. Accommodation is basic by comparison with elsewhere in South Africa.

    For details see: and

    Also one place offering accommodation:
    Cremorne Estate:


    50. Africa Online vs M-Web - Continent-wide content providers slug it out

    39. Zimbabwe's MDC uses the web to fight the government

    37. Uganda's Life in Africa Foundation - Expanding the art of the

    33. Africa's e-press for ICT professionals

    29. Kenya:Busting corruption using the internet

    19. WOZA: Building a content-rich site

    14. Speaking in Tongues? A Shona language web site

    8. The All-African portal - A new contender enters the field

    7. Sierre Leone's leading independent newspaper on the internet

    You can read and download these at . If
    you have difficulties accessing the web, mail us on
    [email protected]

    [email protected]__________

    In response to an increasing number of enquiries from companies wanting to
    advertise their products and services, we have drawn up a rate card for ads
    in this section (or in other parts of News Update) and for banner ads on our
    web site. To see a copy of our rate card, e-mail a request
    ([email protected])


    I have just attended the 3rd Annual Conference on VOIP - IP-PBX at the
    Langham Hilton in London. I will be completing a paper and slideware
    summarising the conference in the next few weeks. I will be visiting South
    Africa at the end of March 2001 and would welcome any enquiries from people
    wishing to attend a presentation workshop with particular emphasis on the
    South African Telecom's environment.

    Many thanks

    ERICSSON ///
    Seymour Howe
    Relationship Manager
    United Kingdom

    Ericsson Enterprise Limited
    Enterprise Networks
    Telecommunications Centre
    Ericsson Way, Burgess Hill
    West Sussex
    RH15 9UB
    * Telephone: +44 (0)1444 23 4567
    * V Mail: +44 (0)1444 256235
    * Mobile: +44 (0)7769 886311
    * Fax: +44 (0)1444 874299
    * e-mail:



    This is the WEST AFRICA NEWSLETTER, a new source of reporting on human rights, democracy and development news and networking.
    International Center and Liberia Institute of
    Journalism Reporting on Human Rights, Democracy & Development
    Vol. 1 No. 13 March 16, 2001


    1. EDITOR’S COMMENTS--Ghana’s Ambassador Commends
    7. GRANTS
    11. ABOUT US
    NOTICE: WE have added a new section called “news
    around Liberia”. The latest groundbreaking news, just
    to keep you up dated about Liberia.

    1. EDITOR’S COMMENTS--Ghana’s Ambassador Commends

    Thursday, March 8,--Arlington, Va.--Hon. Francis A.
    Tsegah, Ghana’s Ambassador to the United States
    informed an audience at Freedom Forum, that Ghana’s
    media played an important role during the country’s
    general elections.
    The elections which marked the first time a peaceful
    transfer of power has taken place in Ghana, was hailed
    around the world as remarkable and should be emulated
    by other West African countries.
    The third elections in the history of Ghana’s 44 years
    of independence, came without bloodshed as compared to
    transfer of power in other West African Countries.
    Ambassador Tsegah, lashing out at the state-owned
    media said, at first they ignored the opposition
    candidates for too long. At the dying minute of the
    campaign before giving space and air-time to the
    emerging opposition presidential candidate, John
    Taking part in the round table discussion,--GHANA and
    its MEDIA, was a senior correspondent at the Ghanaian
    Chronicle, Mr. Alfred Ogbamey, who said, the elections
    were determined by the media, “especially radio”. The
    round table discussion was moderated by Ms. Joan
    Mower, the International Director at Freedom Forum. In
    making comparison to the US “pregnant chad election”,
    in which the US Supreme Court Republican wing
    certified GeorgeW. Bush, as the winner, Mr. Ogbamey
    said, “Ghana went to the polls later than U. S. But
    declared the winner before the US”. A comment which
    draw a large applaud from the audience which number
    about 75 plus.


    Liberia: IRIN focus on reactions to Security Council
    The Liberian government has vowed to comply with
    demands made by the UN Security Council in a
    resolution imposing restrictions against it for
    trading in illicit diamonds and weapons with RUF
    rebels in Sierra Leone. (Source:IRIN)

    Liberia announces diamond export ban ahead of UN
    meeting on sanctions

    Liberia on Wednesday, March 7, banned the export of
    the so-called “blood diamonds” for 120 days in a
    last-ditch attempt to avoid further UN sanctions.

    RUF calls for National government of unity
    The rebel Revolutionary United Front in Sierra Leone
    is calling on President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah to
    immediately form a government of national unity or
    resign and give way to a national transitional
    government before elections can be held in six months

    Fighting Hunger Worldwide
    Far too many of the world’s people face an unnecessary
    nightmare:Hunger. Many people don’t know where or when
    they will enjoy the luxury of their next meal. In fact
    about 24,000 people die each day as a consequence of
    hunger and malnutrition.(source:Care)

    A savings and loan project in Niger is empowering
    women to realize their economic potential
    The women’s pride is contagious. With a beaming face,
    one says, “come see my goat.”

    The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial
    Discrimination Reviews
    The Committee on the Elimination of Racial
    Discrimination this morning reviewed the situation of
    racial discrimination and adherence to the
    International Convention on the elimination of all
    forms of racial Discrimination in Togo. The Committee
    is expected to review without reports the situation in
    Coted’Ivoire, Gambia, Senegal and Sierra Leone.

    Drivers protest fuel price increase

    traffic was completely brought to a halt yesterday
    morning at the west field junction when drivers and
    apprentices numbering about 600 took to the streets,
    protesting what they called the “unwarranted and
    unjustifiable” increase in fuel prices by the
    government effective last Monday.

    Gun fire Rocks Freetown again
    A heavy sound of gun fire rocked the Sierra Leone
    capital Freetown on Wednesday sending signals that the
    West African Nation is reeling back to chaos.


    Renewed Fighting near Guinea’s “parrot’s beak” Region
    The United Nations refugee agency, UNHCR, says renewed
    fighting near Guinea’s “parrot beak” region has set
    back efforts to resume full-scale relief operations to
    refugees. (Source:VOA)

    Aid suspended in Southern Guinea after new attack
    Aid agencies said on Saturday that operations in
    southeast Guinea remained suspended after the latest
    attack by rebels in the area and would not until
    Monday at the earliest.



    GlaxoSmithKline and WHO announced that they have
    signed an agreement for the development of a new
    treatment for malaria called LAPDAP.

    SENEGAL and other Nations lead in Global Campaign
    against Epilepsy

    Leading a global Campaign against epilepsy, Senegal is
    implementing projects to train doctors in diagnosing
    epilepsy and providing treatment for the disease.

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease urgently
    required International Action, says FAO
    “The rapid spread of a pandemic stain of
    foot-and-mouth disease(FMD) clearly demonstrates the
    ability of the FMD virus to infiltrate a wide
    geographic area and cause epidemic in countries which
    have been free for many years from the disease, FAO
    said in a statement. Meanwhile, FAO has warned about
    bushmeat crisis that is caused by excessive hunting of
    wild animals for food.


    World Bank, IMF leaders, return from listening tour to

    Working together and with outside support, Africans
    can and will address their own challenges--in their
    own ways--for lasting results.

    Sub-Saharan Africa economies grow

    Sub-Saharan economies are growing again after decades
    of stagnation. But on average, growth continues to
    fall short of what is needed for the absolute number
    of poor to decline.


    Liberia: Journalists Under Threat Again

    Four independent journalists detained for writing
    article critical of the government should be
    immediately released. Amnesty International said. The
    four have been detained since 21 February and were
    onTuesday,13, 2001 denied bail by a Liberian criminal

    7. GRANTS

    In searching of funds to keep your organization
    The following foundations could be your answer to your
    search for funds.
    1. The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, 250 Park
    Ave.,New York, New York 10177-0026
    2. Corman Foundation, INC., 100 Brookwood Rd., P.
    O. Drawer 10751, Atmore, Al 36504
    E-Mail: or
    3. Louise B. & Edgar M. Cullman Foundation, 641
    Lexington Ave., 29th Fl., New York,
    NY.10022-4599, Tel.(212)561-8703

    4. William Dauch Foundation, 1570 Dutch Hollow Rd.,
    Elida, OH 45807-1803, Tel.(419)339- 4441,
    Contact: Thomas E. Brown, Pres.
    5. Debley, Inc., P. O. Box 427, St. Marys City, MD.
    20686, Tel. (202) 986-2419


    Did you know that the World Bank has two types of
    financing of projects to eligible member countries?
    Long-term investment (5-10 years) and short-term
    adjustment (1-3 years) projects. Currently, the bank’s
    lending portfolio consists of several thousand
    projects, representing an annual disbursement of
    approximately $25 billion.


    “Charles Taylor is a Regional Danger” says, legislator

    Testifying before a crowed Congressional hearing
    Senator Russ Feingold(D-WI) placed the Liberian regime
    of Charles Taylor at the heart of a “deeply disturbing
    trend” emerging in West Africa, by which “violent
    regimes hold entire civilian population hostage in
    order to win concessions, and even the guise of
    legitimacy, from the International Community”.

    Gasoline Shortage Paralyses Monrovia

    According to the Inquirer newspaper, gasoline crisis
    has worsened over the past four days in Monrovia and
    its surroundings, resulting into thousands of
    residents trekking or paying double the transport
    fares. The gas shortage has also increased the
    suffering of the people as prices of other commodities
    have increased sharply to the disadvantage of buyers.
    The major streets in Monrovia is clear of traffic as
    drivers abandon their vehicles. Meanwhile, the
    authorities say as far they concern there is no
    gasoline shortage, but yet it can’t be found at the
    pumps. A check of five gasoline stations, by the WEST
    AFRICA NEWSLETTER, using their dipsticks show that
    there is no gasoline in their tanks.


    June 14-18, 2001 at American University in Washington,
    For more details visit website:

    World Water Day on 22 March 2001 is a global advocacy
    and awareness-raising activity. It is dedicated this
    year to focus attention on water and health issues.
    The prime objective is to impact opinion on how to
    improve the current condition of water and health
    around the world.
    For more details visit

    11. ABOUT US

    This is the WEST AFRICA NEWSLETTER, a new source of
    reporting on human rights, democracy and development
    news and networking. Produced and distributed free of
    charge by the International Center, 731-8th SE,
    Washington, DC 20003 and Liberia Institute of
    Journalism, Kashour Building, 2nd Floor, Corner of
    Broad and Johnson Streets, P.O.Box 2314, Monrovia,
    Liberia, West Africa, Telephone: 011-231-227-327
    This project is funded by grant from the International
    Center in Washington, DC, to Liberia Institute of
    To subscribe or unsubscribe, please place “subscribe
    or unsubscribe WEST AFRICA NEWSLETTER”, in the subject
    heading and email to the editor: Vinnie Hodges at
    We also welcome information or articles for
    publication in WEST AFRICA NEWSLETTER (WAN). Please
    send them to the editor Vinnie Hodges at

    Fundraising & useful resources



    To search the complete PND archive (300+ issues dating to January 1995), visit Philanthropy News Digest. Have a question about foundations, philanthropy, or fundraising? Visit our online reference service at
    March 20, 2001
    Volume 7, Issue 12

    To search the complete PND archive (300+ issues dating
    to January 1995), visit Philanthropy News Digest on the
    World Wide Web (

    Have a question about foundations, philanthropy,
    or fundraising? Visit our online reference service at:

    Next week's issue of Philanthropy News Digest will be
    devoted to international philanthropy, with a focus
    on Web-based resources in dozens of subject and
    georgraphic categories. Don't miss it!

    To view previous special issues, visit:

    To subscribe to the Digest, go to:

    ::::::::::::::: QUOTATION OF THE WEEK ::::::::::::::::

    "We now know quality teaching is the hallmark of successful
    schools, but efforts to recruit quality teachers and improve
    their training have not kept pace with other aspects of
    the school reform movement."

    -- Daniel Fallon, chair of the Carnegie Corporation of
    New York's education division, commenting on a new
    Corporation initiative to improve teacher quality.

    ::::::::::::::: IN THE NEWS ::::::::::::::::

    -- Foundation Center Study Shows Jump in Grant Dollars
    Overall in 1999
    -- Bill Gates, Sr. Defends Estate Tax Before Senate
    Finance Committee
    -- New Survey Shows Growth in Faith-Based Outreach
    -- Tithing by Congregants Difficult to Measure
    -- Three Foundations Partner to Promote Religious
    Pluralism in Israel
    -- Carnegie Corporation of New York Announces New Grants
    to Promote Teacher Quality
    -- Packard Foundation Donates $11 Million for UC, Merced
    Campus Site
    -- Queens College Returns $3 Million Gift

    Foundation Center Study Shows Jump in Grant Dollars
    Overall in 1999

    At the end of the 20th century, the nation's nonprofit
    community continued to benefit from an unprecedented boom
    in foundation giving, according to a new study from the
    Foundation Center ( Overall, the
    more than 1,000 larger U.S. private and community founda-
    tions included in the 1999 Foundation Center grants sample
    awarded more than 108,000 grants totaling $11.6 billion to
    over 44,500 organizations -- a 19.2 percent increase in
    giving and an 11.3 percent rise in number of grants over
    the prior year. In addition, the number of the very
    largest grants -- those of $5 million or more -- jumped
    15 percent, to a record 169.

    "The growth in giving seen in the 1999 sample did not
    quite match the record gains reported for 1998," noted
    Loren Renz, vice president for research at the Foundation
    Center. "Yet in terms of actual grant dollars, foundations
    showed a slightly bigger increase in the latest year."
    This increase benefited nearly every field, with "the
    environment, human services, and health all realizing
    above-average growth in foundation support."

    The analysis of 1999 giving is based on a sample of
    108,169 grants of $10,000 or more reported by 1,016
    foundations, including approximately 800 of the 1,000
    largest by total giving. These foundations, while
    representing only 2.1 percent of the total number of
    active grantmaking foundations, awarded approximately
    half of all foundation grant dollars reported in the latest

    To download highlights of Foundation Giving Trends, visit:

    "Environment, Human Services, and Health Realize Fastest
    Growth in Giving by Top-Ranked U.S. Foundations in 1999."
    Foundation Center Press Release 03/19/01.

    Bill Gates, Sr. Defends Estate Tax Before Senate Finance

    Bill Gates, Sr., the father of Microsoft chairman Bill
    Gates and president of the Seattle-based Bill & Melinda
    Gates Foundation (, the
    country's largest private foundation, appeared before the
    Senate Finance Committee last week to defend the estate
    tax in its current form, the Washington Post reports.

    Gates, who appeared before a committee panel, told his
    audience that without the tax the U.S. would eventually
    see "an aristocracy of wealth that has nothing to do with
    merit." Gates, who figured his own estate tax bill to be
    about $6.8 million, also argued that it is "appropriate
    that a special tax be imposed on those who have so fully
    enjoyed the benefit of the things this country provides."
    Under current law, the first $675,000 ($1.3 million for
    couples) of an estate is exempt from taxation.

    Democrats have pointed to data showing that only two
    percent of estates are affected by the tax -- and that
    half the revenue from the tax comes from 3,000 estates
    worth more than $5 million.

    The leader of the movement to repeal the tax, Republican
    Senator Jon Kyl of Arizona, disagreed with Gates'
    suggestion that elimination of the tax would cause a
    decline in charitable donations.

    Kessler, Glenn. "Gates Sr. Spars With GOP Over Estate
    Tax." Washington Post 3/16/2001.

    New Survey Shows Growth in Faith-Based Outreach Programs

    According to a survey funded by the Indianapolis-based
    Lilly Endowment, community outreach programs are operated
    by an overwhelming majority of the country's 325,000
    religious congregations.

    The study by the Hartford Institute for Religion Research
    study found that 85 percent of U.S. congregations already
    offer community service programs -- making such programs
    more common than prayer groups or choir practice. The most
    common programs offered by churches provide some combi-
    nation of cash, food, clothing, and shelter to needy families.
    In addition, more than a third of the congregations surveyed
    offer day care, substance-abuse counseling, or health

    "Their contribution to the welfare of communities is far
    greater than many estimates suggest," said Hartford
    Seminary researchers Carl Dudley and David Roozen.
    Contrary to some published reports, Dudley and Roozen add,
    "congregations with a strong commitment to social justice
    and with direct participation in community outreach
    ministries are more likely to be growing than other

    Lattin, Don. "Community Services Abound in Churches;
    Study Shows Possibilities of 'Faith-Based' Charity."
    San Francisco Chronicle 03/15/01.

    Tithing by Congregants Difficult to Measure

    According to a new survey released by the Atlanta-based
    Interdenominational Theological Center
    (, approximately forty-five
    percent of African American church members tithe.

    "There is more and more data that black churches are more
    involved [in tithing] than white churches because the
    laity is more theological," ITC spokesperson Stephen Rasor
    told the Philadelphia Inquirer. "One does not separate
    the secular from the religious."

    Other statistics on tithing practices are difficult to come by,
    however, and many experts are skeptical about how
    generous Americans really are when it comes to giving to
    their congregations.

    "The gloves come off when people talk about money and
    churches," notes Sylvia Ronsvalle, vice president of
    Chicago-based Empty Tomb (,
    a Christian research organization. "There is an unwritten
    rule that pastors don't want to know how much people give
    because they don't want it to affect their ministry. And
    as we become a more affluent culture, we found church
    members formed their attitudes toward money based on
    advertising. Churches are keeping people happy rather than
    transforming them."

    Carlson, Edward. "Do Worshipers Give God His 10 Percent?"
    Philadelphia Inquirer 3/11/2001.

    Three Foundations Partner to Promote Religious Pluralism
    in Israel

    Three major Jewish philanthropies, the D.C.-based New
    Israel Fund (, the New York City-based
    Nathan Cummings Foundation (, and the
    Dorot Foundation ( in Providence,
    Rhode Island, have announced a partnership to promote the
    development of a pluralistic, tolerant Israeli culture
    that is inclusive of diverse approaches to Judaism and
    Jewish identity through a new program called Joint Venture:
    Religious Pluralism.

    "This partnership will create a synergy," said Dorot
    Foundation executive director Ernest S. Frerichs. "By
    pooling our knowledge, years of experience in Israel, and
    differing strategies, we'll not only bring more resources
    to the issue, but provide an incentive for other funders
    to join our collaboration."

    The new initiative's goals include fostering diverse
    expressions of Jewish identity and practice; providing a
    non-Orthodox venue for Israelis to mark important
    lifestyle events; creating conditions in Israel so that
    every couple can marry according to his/her personal
    choice, among others.

    "One of the great ironies of contemporary Israel is that
    non-Orthodox Jews lack the right of full religious
    expression and worship," said Rachel Cowan, director of
    the Jewish Life program at New York City-based Nathan
    Cummings Foundation. "Israeli Jews should be able to
    choose how they worship, study, and come together in
    community, as do Jews throughout the world."

    "Foundations Join Forces to Promote Religious Pluralism in
    Israel; Aim is Tolerant, Inclusive Approach to Judaism."
    AScribe News Press Release 3/19/2001.


    Carnegie Corporation of New York Announces New Grants to
    Promote Teacher Quality

    The Carnegie Corporation of New York
    ( has approved grants totaling
    $2.8 million to five nonprofit organizations that will
    focus attention on the critical role teachers play in the
    school reform movement. The grants recognize teachers'
    contributions and the critical need to provide them with
    the training, support, and rewards required to perform one
    of society's most demanding and important jobs.

    "We now know quality teaching is the hallmark of
    successful schools," said Daniel Fallon, chair of
    Carnegie's education division, "but efforts to recruit
    quality teachers and improve their training have not kept
    pace with other aspects of the school reform movement. As
    it stands, only about 500 of the nation's 1,300 education
    schools are nationally accredited and, in a recent federal
    survey, a majority of teachers said they felt ill-prepared
    to meet many of the instructional challenges they face in
    the classroom."

    Many education professionals fear that school districts
    facing a shortage of teachers will lower teacher
    qualifications in order to staff their classrooms. The
    problem is aggravated by the fact that more than 30
    percent of all teachers, and up to 50 percent of teachers
    in large urban districts, quit within five years.

    "These numbers suggest that in order to both to recruit
    and retain excellent teachers, we need to do a better job
    of honoring the profession, preparing teachers, and
    helping them cope with the challenges of the classroom
    early in their career," added Fallon.

    "A New Focus for Education Division of Carnegie Corpor-
    ation of New York: Teacher Quality in School Reform."
    Carnegie Corporation of New York Press Release 3/5/2001.

    Packard Foundation Donates $11 Million for UC, Merced
    Campus Site

    The University of California, Merced has received a grant
    of more than $11 million from the David and Lucile Packard
    Foundation in Los Altos, California. The grant will enable
    UC Merced to acquire the 7,030-acre Virginia Smith Trust
    parcel northeast of the city of Merced and provide the
    means to achieve several important goals, including
    securing the proposed site for the new 2,000-acre UC Mer-
    ced campus, creating a 5,030-acre conservation preserve,
    providing a direct contribution to the Trust's educational
    endowment, and triggering the release of $15 million in
    state-approved habitat acquisition funds from the Wildlife
    Conservation Board.

    "David Packard was known for his vision in technology, in
    conservation, and in building a global enterprise," noted
    UC Merced chancellor Carol Tomlinson-Keasey. "This
    marvelous support from the foundation's trustees is
    similarly visionary. We are deeply appreciative of this
    gift from the Packard Foundation, which has a special
    commitment to the environment and to preserving
    California's natural heritage. The funds from this grant
    will allow us to create a world-class research university
    in Merced at the same time that we protect unique natural
    habitats of eastern Merced County."

    The planned development and natural preserve created by
    the foundation's gift will augment the efforts taken last
    year by Gov. Gray Davis and the state legislature to
    create a $30 million fund for purchase of conservation
    easements in eastern Merced County.

    "Packard Foundation Donates More Than $11 Million to UC
    System for Acquisition of Proposed Merced Campus Site."
    University of California, Merced Press Release 03/20/01.

    Queens College Returns $3 Million Gift

    Queens College, in Flushing, New York, has returned $3
    million to an alumnus who donated money to the school to
    help build an AIDS research center, the New York Times

    Dr. Bernard Salick, a 1960 graduate of Queens College, and
    his wife Gloria donated $4.5 million to the school -- one
    of 19 colleges in the City University of New York system
    -- in 1997 as seed money toward construction of the $30
    million center. The Salicks' gift also was intended to endow
    a chair in cellular and molecular biology for Dr. Luc Mon-
    tagnier, the discoverer of the AIDS virus. When matching
    funds promised by the school's then-president, Dr. Allen L.
    Sessoms, failed to materialize, however, the Salicks asked
    that their gift be returned.

    "It's a great school with a great faculty and great
    students," commented Dr. Salick. "Obviously I'm very
    saddened that a project that looked like a spectacular
    project for Queens didn't develop as we wanted."

    The college will keep $1.5 million of the gift that was
    used for development plans and a temporary research
    center. It will also use $291,000 in interest earned by
    the gift to endow the Bernard and Gloria Salick
    scholarship fund for students in biological or biomedical
    sciences. Dr. Montagnier, who currently has a tenured
    position as a distinguished professor at the college, is
    still in negotiations with the college regarding his

    Arenson, Karen W. "College Returns $3 Million Gift for
    AIDS Lab." New York Times 3/17/2001.

    ***************** ANNOUNCEMENT ****************

    New Release! The Foundation Directory on CD-ROM, Version
    2.0, contains current profiles of the top 10,000 U.S.
    foundations. Our CD-ROM technology offers high speed
    searching and sophisticated features. Our growing family
    of Foundation Directory products includes access to data
    on the nation's top funders in CD-ROM, online and print

    For more details, visit:

    :::::::::::: DAILY UPDATES (March 14-19) ::::::::::::::

    -- Council on Foundations Urges Repeal of Excise Tax on
    Foundation Investment Income
    -- Massachusetts Couple Donates $3 Million to Yellowstone
    Park Foundation
    -- New York Center for Arts and Education Receives $12
    Million from Annenberg Foundation
    -- Gates Foundation Gives Over $100 Million to Washington
    High Schools
    -- Children's National Medical Center Launches $250
    Million Fundraising Campaign
    -- AT&T Foundation Awards Grant to National Council of
    La Raza

    Council on Foundations Urges Repeal of Excise Tax on
    Foundation Investment Income

    In an appearance before the Senate Finance Committee,
    Dorothy S. Ridings, president and CEO of the Council on
    Foundations, told committee members that private
    foundation giving would actually increase by hundreds of
    millions of dollars a year if the excise tax on private
    foundations was repealed.

    The tax, generally two percent of a foundation's annual
    net investment income, was enacted in 1969 to cover the
    costs of IRS oversight of private foundations. The tax
    counts as a credit against the annual minimum
    distribution, or "payout" -- currently five percent of
    a foundation's assets -- that private foundations are
    required to make under federal law.

    "It is important to emphasize that repeal would have no
    financial benefit for foundations," Ridings said in a
    statement for the hearing record. "Every dollar not paid
    in taxes would go directly into the charitable stream."

    Under a provision enacted in 1984, foundations may pay one
    percent of the net investment income, rather than two
    percent, if their payout in a given year is greater than
    the average of the preceding five years. Congress intended
    the rule to spur more giving, but in practice the rule has
    acted as a disincentive to higher distributions.

    "Council Urges Repeal of Excise Tax on Private Foundation
    Investment Income, Support for Other Charitable Proposals."
    Council on Foundations Press Release 3/14/2001.

    Massachusetts Couple Donates $3 Million to Yellowstone
    Park Foundation

    Cheng and Shalin Wu, founders of network services company
    Arrowpoint Communications, a provider of Internet
    switches and network services software, have donated $3
    million to the Yellowstone Park Foundation
    (, the Boston Herald reports.

    The money, almost half of the $6.7 million the Montana-
    based nonprofit has raised for the park to date, will go
    toward creating a new visitor center, to be built next to
    Old Faithful, the park's famous geyser. According to
    foundation officials, the existing visitor center is
    "poorly located, poorly designed, has no interpretive
    exhibits, and does little to enhance the visitor

    The new center is expected to cost approximately $15
    million. When completed, it will feature an exhibit
    space, a high-tech library, and a 300-seat theater.

    The Wus first visited Yellowstone, the first and oldest
    national park in the world, in 1999 and made their
    commitment last summer, after their Acton-based company
    was purchased by networking giant Cisco Systems for $5.7

    "We had never seen so many animals," Shalin Wu noted.
    "It's their home. It's not ours. We should save it for

    Sweet, Laurel J. "Couple from Carlisle Donate $3 Million
    to Yellowstone Park." Boston Herald 3/12/2001.


    New York Center for Arts and Education Receives $12
    Million from Annenberg Foundation

    The New York City-based Center for Arts and Education
    ( has received a $12 million grant
    from the Annenberg Foundation (
    and a $2.5 million commitment from the New York City Board
    of Education to bring arts education to all of the city's
    public school children.

    The two grants will form the nucleus of a $21.5 million
    campaign to identify and disseminate model programs;
    expand internships in the arts for students and profes-
    sional development for teachers and administrators;
    foster greater parent involvement; and promote
    partnerships among schools, cultural organizations, and
    the city's businesses.

    "We are grateful to the Annenberg Foundation and to the
    City of New York for their steadfast commitment to the
    revival of arts education in our city's public schools,"
    said CAE board chair Laurie Tisch Sussman. "The Annen-
    berg Challenge catalyzed a coalition of public and private
    organizations and businesses in support of arts education
    for our great city's children."

    This is the second grant CAE has received from the
    Annenberg Foundation. The first, for $12 million in 1996,
    was matched with $24 million by the Center and currently
    helps fund arts education partnerships between 80 public
    schools and 135 cultural organizations, colleges, and

    "The Center for Arts Education Wins Announces Phase
    Two Initiatives and Major Funding for Arts Education."
    Center for Arts and Education Press Release 03/15/2001.

    Gates Foundation Gives Over $100 Million to Washington
    High Schools

    The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
    ( has chosen sixteen
    public high schools to participate in the Washington State
    Achievers Program. The schools chosen will share more than
    $9 million to support improvement and redesign efforts;
    another $100 million will be earmarked for scholarships
    for students. Launched two months ago, the Washington State
    Achievement Program is geared to helping more students in
    the state prepare for, attend, and complete college.

    "It needs to start in middle school," said Tom Vander Ark,
    the foundation's executive director for education. "This
    program will work with students beginning in middle school,
    through high school, and even into college. It's a compre-
    hensive approach to addressing issues of access to higher

    The selected schools, representing a cross-section of the
    state's public high schools, will move toward learning
    environments of no more than 100 students per grade level.
    The average size of the high schools selected is about
    1,000 students. Schools will also redesign how they
    approach teaching and learning, personalized instruction,
    and the use of technology as a tool.

    "The research on small schools is conclusive," said Rick
    Lear, director of the Small Schools Project at the
    University of Washington. "Kids thrive when teachers know
    their names and can follow their progress. Redesigning
    schools is hard work, but the results are worth every
    effort invested."

    The scholarship component of the program will be
    administered by the Washington Education Foundation. Under
    the program, 500 scholarships will be awarded every year
    to low-income, high achieving students to attend
    Washington public and independent colleges and
    universities. Additional information on the scholarship
    program is available at the Washington Education
    Foundation Web site (

    "High Schools in Washington State Chosen for Washington
    State Achievers Program."
    Bill & Melinda Gates Foudation Press Release 03/13/01.


    Children's National Medical Center Launches $250 Million
    Fundraising Campaign

    Children's National Medical Center
    (, a leader in the development
    of innovative treatments for childhood illnesses, has
    announced the launch of Giant Steps: Great Strides for
    Children's Health, the largest fundraising campaign in the
    history of American pediatric hospitals.

    "The campaign will have a significant impact on children
    everywhere in terms of the major breakthroughs in research
    and medical treatment that will be made possible," said
    Edwin K. Zechman, Jr., president and CEO of CNMC. "It
    significantly raises the bar for what will be possible in
    children's health care, as well as what will be achievable
    in philanthropic support for pediatric hospitals across
    the country. This increase in funding will drive
    advancements that can be moved from the research bench to
    bedside more quickly than ever before."

    The five-year campaign has already raised $155 million of
    its $250 million goal, thanks in part to two $25 million
    gifts. The gifts, from Mr. and Mrs. Joseph E. Robert, Jr.
    of McLean, Virginia, and Mr. and Mrs. Stephen A. Goldberg
    of Washington, D.C., are the largest single gifts ever
    received by a pediatric hospital in the U.S. Mr. Robert is
    co-chair of CNMC's Leadership Gifts Committee and CEO of
    McLean-based J.E. Robert Companies. Mr. Goldberg is
    president of the D.C.-based Stephen A. Goldberg Company
    and, with his wife Diana, a founder of the Children's
    Hospital Foundation, a major contributor to CNMC.

    "Philanthropy is an investment -- an investment in a way
    of life, a future, and a cause," said Mrs. Goldberg.
    "There is no cause greater than the health of our
    children, and no hospital better positioned than
    Children's to hasten medical advancements to benefit
    children worldwide."

    Funds raised by the campaign will help CNMC recruit
    additional world-class scientists to accelerate the
    discovery of medical advances, including new treatments
    and cures for complex diseases such as cancer, AIDS,
    epilepsy, and muscular dystrophy. Funds also will be used
    to bolster hospital-based surgical services, update
    medical technologies, and refurbish and expand facilities
    to accommodate CNMC's rapid growth.

    "Children's National Medical Center Launches $250 Million
    Fund Raising Campaign By Announcing More Than $155 Million
    in Major Gifts Already Received." P.R. Newswire 03/19/01.

    "Children's National Medical Center to Launch $250 Million
    Fund Raising Campaign to Shape Future of Pediatric Care."
    Children's National Medical Center Press Release 03/12/01.


    AT&T Foundation Awards Grant to National Council of
    La Raza

    The AT&T Foundation ( has
    awarded a $250,000 grant to the National Council of La
    Raza ( to support its Latino
    Education Reform Project, an effort to ensure that the
    educational needs of Hispanic students are met.

    The project will focus on increasing the educational
    achievement of Hispanic students through policy formation
    at the federal, state, and local levels as well as
    identification and replication of best practices to be
    used in community-based educational settings. Policy
    activities will include increasing the access of Latino
    students to effective program interventions and shaping
    public school reforms to assure their responsiveness to
    Hispanic students.

    According to research by the U.S. Department of
    Education, between 1986 and 1997 the percentage of
    Hispanic students in elementary and secondary schools
    increased at a faster rate than that of white and
    African American students. A 1998 report issued by the
    NCLR found that Hispanic students are more likely to
    begin their education with high poverty rates, low levels
    of parental education, and limited English proficiency.

    "This latest grant from the AT&T Foundation is extremely
    helpful to us in providing better educational
    opportunities to Hispanic students," said NCLR president
    and CEO Raul Yzaquirre. "I am very grateful to AT&T for
    their many years of support to the National Council of
    La Raza."

    "AT&T and National Council of La Raza Help Close Gap
    Faced by Hispanic Students." AT&T Foundation Press
    Release 3/16/2001.

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    South africa: introduction to fundraising

    presented by Ann Bown (SAIF President)


    12 April 2001 - this all day workshop is a must for anyone starting out in the fundraising profession. You will be given insights into new trends in fundraising and the fundraising cycle; the importance of planning to fundraise, how to identify potential donors and how to write corporate proposals, plus lots more information on income generation. Full details and booking forms from SAIF National Centre 011 884 0351 or email.

    SOUTH AFRICA: People to People Seminar

    Meet the Best in Fundraising from North America & South Africa


    A delegation of over 40 American fundraising specialists is coming to SA to facilitate the transference of expertise. There will be a full days programme of presentations and discussion groups on all aspects of fundraising, facilitated by both American and South African specialists, leading towards an exchange of ideas and information.

    Courses, seminars, & workshops

    Africultures - Lettre d'information


    La lettre a 1566 abonnés à ce jour, donc chaque semaine un peu plus, ET
    POURTANT beaucoup ne sont pas encore au courant ! Aidez-nous à la faire
    connaître en en parlant ou en la transférant à vos amis !

    Un résumé de la lettre en anglais est également publié chaque mois.

    Africultures - Lettre d'information 13/2001
    semaine du 23.03.01 au 01.04.01

    Bonjour à tous,

    Pour recevoir la lettre sans bug, entrez votre adresse e-mail sur la page d'
    accueil du site :

    La lettre a 1566 abonnés à ce jour, donc chaque semaine un peu plus, ET
    POURTANT beaucoup ne sont pas encore au courant ! Aidez-nous à la faire
    connaître en en parlant ou en la transférant à vos amis !

    Un résumé de la lettre en anglais est également publié chaque mois.


    Nous rappelons que, pour ne pas surcharger cette lettre, nous ne publions
    que les nouveautés.
    Pour avoir la totalité de l'agenda, rendez-vous sur :

    Les détails des programmations ainsi que les adresses, contacts et horaires
    sont sur :


    - Trilogie du Désert de Fatna Benaïssa, Espace Taninna, du 10 au 31 mars.
    Exposition de 30 ouvres.


    - 87 - L'Art à Palabres, Limoges, du 30 mars au 16 avril. Exposition de
    sculptures et de peintures d'artistes burkinabés invités dans le cadre de
    "La Culture au grand Jour" organisée par le Conseil Général de Haute Vienne
    et proposée par l'association Limousin Afrique Création.


    - Maroc - El Hayani, Galerie Al Manar, Casablanca, du 20 mars au 10 avril.
    Exposition du peintre Bouchta El Hayani, travaux sur toile et sur papier.


    Paris :
    - Exposition "Arts d'Afrique", Musée Dapper, jusqu'au 30 juin. Cette
    exposition inaugure le nouvel espace du musée.
    - Michel Nedjar, Galerie de la Halle Saint-Pierre, du 08 mars au 22 avril.
    L'exposition s'intitule "Chairdâme".
    - les ateliers de N'Gor, Galerie Hérouet, du 15 au 30 mars. Les peintres des
    ateliers de l'Ile de N'Gor à Dakar, exposent à Paris. L'aventure des
    Ateliers de Ngor débute en 1995 sur l'initiative de Gaston Madeira avec un
    but, celui d'offrir à de jeunes talents un espace de création, d'exposition
    et de convivialité. Six peintres y ont élu domicile depuis l'ouverture de la
    galerie en janvier 1999 : Omar Lionel Sow, Pape Coulibaly, Pape Teigne
    Diouf, Alain Waddale, Philippe Sene et Laure Malecot. L'esprit du lieu est
    unique et révèle la complémentarité de leurs talents. A chacun son style,
    ses émotions et sa technique.
    - Quatrième parallèle - Résidences d'artistes français et africains en
    Centrafrique, Hôtel d'Albret, du 22 mars au 20 avril. Huit artistes
    originaires de France, de Centrafrique et du Cameroun ont travaillé ensemble
    durant vingt jours au cour de la forêt primaire à Salo, en République
    Centrafricaine. La confrontation intellectuelle des ces artistes, en ce lieu
    fort et difficile a donné naissance à un travail hors-norme, ancré dans une
    certaine réalité et surréalité africaine. A l'occasion des journées
    mondiales de la francophonie, la direction des affaires culturelles de la
    ville de Paris présente avec l'Afaa, une certaine vision du dialogue
    Nord/Sud, déjà entamée sur le terrain : Salo, ou les 20 jours de résidence.
    - Cheikh Abdel Kader Sow, Restaurant l'Annexe, du 16 au 30 mars. Exposition
    du peintre malien Caksow sur les thèmes de la foule et de la paix. Organisée
    par l'association La Girafe
    - Ouverture de la nouvelle Galerie Agbé & Balikam, exposition de Do Mesrine
    (sculpteur togolais) et Pascal Heranval (peintre franco-sénégalais), du 24
    mars au 22 avril.
    - "Black is toujours beautiful", 16, rue St Jacques, jusqu'au 31 mars.
    Mustapha Boutadjine expose 21 portraits de personnalités noires dont Myriam
    Makeba, Nelson Mandela, Patrice Lumumba, Frantz Fanon, James Baldwin, Louis
    Armstrong ou Malcom X.

    Régions :
    - 26 - Poteries nègres / écritures de terre, Maison de la terre, Dieulefit,
    du 05 mars au 14 mai. Au jour le jour l'Afrique rurale écrit sa vie dans le
    vent, le bois et la terre. Cette exposition est présentée comme un dialogue
    par signes interposés entre une vingtaine de poteries d'Afrique de l'Ouest
    et douze pagnes bogolans maliens dessinés à la terre.
    - 34 - Le mois de l'Art contemporain africain à Montpellier, du 01 au 31
    mars, organisé par l'Artémision (Association pour la promotion
    internationale des artistes contemporains) en partenariat avec l'Association
    Archidée (association pour le développement harmonieux et interculturel des
    arts Contemporains). Avec l'exposition "Sons et Pigments" de Stenka,
    artiste ivoirien vivant à Abidjan du 1er au 31 Mars à la salle Renaissance
    et d'autres manifestations : expo, conférences, atelier, repas, musiques...
    dans divers lieux de la ville.
    - 49 - Paroles de Tisserands - l'art du tissage au Maroc, Mali et Ghana,
    Cinémas d'Afrique, Angers, du 23 mars au 30 avril. Dans le cadre du festival
    Cinémas d'Afrique d'Angers, une grande exposition est présentée afin
    d'apporter les outils pour faire découvrir, connaître et pratiquer les
    cultures d'Afrique dans leur diversité et leurs richesses.
    - 93 - Les Ouvres de Njulienne Ngaleu, Centre culturel du Théâtre de l'Air
    nouveau, Pantin, du 04 mars au 28 avril. Artiste peintre, décoratrice,
    originaire du Cameroun présente des toiles d'une forte dimension spirituelle
    et d'une sensibilité féminine, tout en gardant un ferme enracinement dans la
    culture africaine. Une femme qui regarde les femmes, une femme qui regarde
    sa terre.

    Afrique :

    - Bénin - Yves Appolinaire Kpede et Kossi Assou, Centre culturel français,
    Cotonou, du 27 fév. au 07 avril. Le plasticien béninois Yves Appolinaire
    Kpede présente une exposition de tapisserie-collages. Les oeuvres de
    l'artiste sont d'inspiration traditionnelle Fon-Yoruba. Cette spécificité
    lui permet des rapprochements avec les artistes haïtiens, cubains et
    brésiliens, qui, comme lui, s'inspirent des cultes traditionnels (vaudou,
    santeria, candomblé). Le peintre togolais Kossi Assou expose ses oeuvres
    dans le même temps. Kossi Assou se partage entre le design, les arts
    plastiques et la direction d'une entreprise culturelle.

    Monde :
    - USA - Smithsonian National Museum of African Art, Washington. jusqu'au 02
    avril 2001 : "Identity of the Sacred : Two Nigerian Shrine Figures".
    - Belgique - Exit Congo Museum, Tervuren, jusqu'au 24 juin. Une exposition
    où dialoguent ethnographie et art contemporain. L'exposition "Exit Congo
    Museum. Un Siècle d'art avec/sans papiers" propose une réflexion critique
    sur les collections d'ethnographie à partir de 125 pièces maîtresses du
    musée, de photographies d'archive, de cartes, de films.ainsi que des ouvres
    d'artistes contemporains.
    - Autriche - Peintres du Congo 1990 - 2000, Museum für Völkerkunde, Vienne,
    du 01 fév. au 01 juil. 2001.


    - "Vive l'Amour", cycle cinéma égyptien, Institut du Monde Arabe, du 06
    janv. au 25 mars. Un cycle consacré au cinéma égyptien des années 40 aux
    années 60 sur le thème de l'amour heureux. 35 films présentés pour revivre
    les grands moments des comédies musicales égyptiennes. Programme complet sur

    - 23ème Festival International de Films de Femmes, Créteil, du 23 mars au 01
    avril. Compétition internationale de 50 fictions, documentaires, courts
    métrages. Section sur les femmes remarquables du XXème siècle, et programme
    sur les tabous dans différentes cultures, prolongées de forums.

    - Festival Racines Noires, Paris et sa région, du 21 mars au 10 avril.
    Rétrospective sur le Musical Noir du soukouss au hip-hop : films, danse,
    musique-live et ciné-contes pour le jeune public. Parmi les invités : Euzhan
    Palcy et Med Hondo. Au MK2 Quai de Seine, à l'Elysée-Lincoln et aux 7
    Parnassiens (Paris), au Meliès (Montreuil), à l'Ecran (Saint Denis) et aux
    Cinémas du Palais (Créteil). Nuit du clash le 24 mars au Forum des Images :
    clips et show-case. Concours de slam du 19 mars au 10 avril sur les sites et Une manifestation qui voyagera à Milan et
    Genève. Festival partenaire d'Africultures : le dossier du mois d'avril sera
    consacré à "la geste musicale dans les cinémas noirs", réalisé en
    collaboration avec Racines noires. Rens : 01 45 51 32 17.

    - 23ème Festival International de Films de Femmes, Créteil, du 23 mars au 01
    avril. Compétition internationale de 50 fictions, documentaires, courts
    métrages. Section sur les femmes remarquables du XXème siècle, et programme
    sur les tabous dans différentes cultures, prolongées de forums.

    - Programme du Musée de l'Homme, Les mercredis du film ethnographique. De
    janv. À juin, chaque dernier mercredi du mois, 18h30, entrée libre. Le 25
    mars à 15h : "Classified X", M. Daniels, "The Bithh of a nation", G. Leblanc
    et N. Stern, le 28 mars : "La Baraka des marchands mourides", J.P. Colleyn,
    le 28 mars : "Forêt sacrée" (Guinée 1953), Pierre dominique Gaisseau, 42',
    "Le Grand Masque Molo" (Burkina Faso) Guy Le Moal, 25' et "Les cercueils de
    Monsieur Kane Kwei" (Ghana 1988) Thierry Secrétan , 43'. -


    - 31 - Maghreb au regard du cinéma colonial, Toulouse, du 12 au 24 mars.
    "Maghreb au regard du cinéma colonial" est une exposition de l'Institut du
    Monde Arabe.

    - 95 - Cinéma africain au Ciné-Forum de Sarcelles. Au Ciné-Forum de
    Sarcelles, quelques titres africains : 21 et 25 mars : Dôlè d'Imunga Ivanga.

    - Tournée - Rencontre-débat autour du film "Circus Baobab".Plusieurs débats
    sont organisés par Ecrans Nord-Sud en collaboration avec ses salles
    adhérentes, autour des films Circus Baobab de Laurent Chevallier et Dôlè
    d'Imunga Ivanga : Circus Baobab de Laurent Chevallier. Le 23 mars :
    Clermont-Ferrand - Cinéma Le Rio avec Laurent Chevallier, le 27 mars :
    Chatenay-Malabry - Le Rex avec Laurent Chevallier et le 28 mars : Roanne -
    Espace Renoir avec Laurent Chevallier.


    - Italie - 11ème Festival Africain de Milan, du 23 au 29 mars. Le Festival
    de Milan propose outre une compétion de courts et longs métrages, une
    compétition de vidéos, une section rétrospective dédiée cette année au
    cinéma du Maroc, et une section à thème sur la comédie musicale africaine.
    60 films et 30 vidéos seront présentés. Le festival comprend six sections :
    la compétition de films longs métrages et courts métrages tournés uniquement
    par des metteurs en scènes africains ou de la diaspora africaine dans le
    monde, le Concours vidéos, qui regroupe les expérimentations d'une nouvelle
    approche documentaire, la docu-fiction, la fiction pour la télévision. La
    section informative (hors-concours) présente un hommage à des metteurs en
    scène confirmés, des films sur l'Afrique de metteurs en scène non africains,
    des documentaires sur des arguments africains. La rétrospective : le cinéma
    du Maroc. La section à thème : la comédie musicale africaine. La section
    "Fenêtre sur le monde" : cette section cinématographique est ouverte aux
    cinématographies provenant de zones géographiques peu présentes sur nos
    écrans, du bassin méditerranéen jusqu'à l'Asie et à l'Amérique du Sud, mais
    aussi à ces films européens qui n'ont pas d'identité nationale bien
    déterminée, des films nomades aux connotations géographiques toujours plus
    confuses qui reflètent les tendances "nomades" de la production indépendante
    actuelle. Cette année la section à thème sur la comédie musicale africaine
    sera "itinérante". Elle quittera Milan au cours du mois d'avril pour le
    Ciné-Théâtre Saint Gervais de Genève et puis pour le Forum des images de

    - Suisse - Black Movie, Cinémas des autres mondes, Genève, du 30 mars au 08
    avril. 10 jours, 40 films, 30 pays ! La 11ème édition du Festival Black
    Movie, Cinémas des autres mondes, propose de partager le quotidien des
    femmes du Sud, prendre des nouvelles de l'Afrique, découvrir des aspects
    insolites de sa diaspora, et ouvrir ainsi de nouvelles lucarnes sur le monde
    qui nous entoure. Le festival présente une sélection de films, dans une
    trentaine de pays du Sud, documentaires et fictions, avec les trois
    itinéraires cinématographiques suivants : La section thématique, dédiée
    cette année à l'univers des femmes dans le Sud. La section africaine
    présentera le meilleur de la production noir-africaine récente. La section
    itinérante entre Paris , Milan et Genève (collaboration entre le Festival
    Racines Noires, le Festival Cinema Africano et Black Movie) déclinera un
    voyage cinématographique à travers l'essence de la geste musicale dans les
    films. En complément, "la Nuit des Esprits" présente une série de films sur
    le vaudou. Egalement un atelier, des rencontres avec les cinéastes, stage d'
    analyse filmique et documentation sur les cinémas du Sud, des concerts
    viendront enrichir la programmation. De plus, à Saint-Gervais Genève, le
    nouveau Bar du festival accueillera les spectateurs. Un événement
    Africultures, la programmation détaillée dans les pages "Evénements

    - USA - Festival Bulldozed !, San Fransisco, du 29 au 31 mars. Au programme
    : fictions et documentaires traitant de tous les aspects de la crise
    (embourgeoisement, expulsions, crise du logement et SDF, effets de la
    nouvelle économie, lutte de la communauté contre la paupérisation...).


    - 94 - Compagnie Norma Claire, le 31 mars à 18h et le 1er avril à 16h. Dans
    le cadre de la 11ème Biennale de Danse du Val-de-Marne, la compagnie Norma
    Claire présente "Juste un zeste d'amour". Au Théâtre d'Ivry Antoine Vitez,
    suivi d'un bal créole le 1er avril.


    - Rwanda-Burundi : dénis et négationnismes, Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS),
    le 28 mars. L'association Internationale de recherche sur les crimes contre
    l'humanité et les génocides organisent une série de séminaire sur "Les
    formes du déni : approches événementielles et transversales". Avec
    Jean-Pierre Chrétien (CNRS, Centre de Recherches Africaines) et Louis
    Bagilishya (Association Communauté Rwandaise de France). Objet du séminaire
    : Typologie, historique et cartographie des formes du déni et du
    négationnisme. Préparation du colloque de juin 2002 (L'Histoire trouée :
    négation et témoignage) : analyse des modes de négation et d'effacement de
    tel ou tel événement, puis analyse transversale interprétative.

    - Séminaire interdisciplinaire sur l'Afrique, Université Paris 8, du 26 mars
    au 23 avril. Centre d'Etudes de Recherche et d'Actions Solidaires avec
    l'Afrique Paris 8 et le collège de recherche propose une série de
    séminaires sur l'Afrique. Thème : culture urbaine en Afrique centrale, le 26
    mars : La musique comme lieu de production du politique (Congo-Brazzaville),
    avec Abel Kouvouama - Université d'Amiens ; Association Rupture-Solidarité.

    - La recherche et la gestion de l'environnement en Outre-mer français, Cité
    des sciences et de l'industrie, le 31 mars. Une table-ronde qui s'inscrit
    dans le cadre de l'exposition "Recherche et Outre-mer".

    - Les Religions Africaines, IIAP, le 28 mars. La CADE, coordination pour
    l'Afrique de demain et ENDA Tiers-Monde, Organisation Internationale
    Environnement et Développement, organisent une rencontre-débat sur les
    religions africaines. Ce troisième rendez-vous s'intègre à un cycle de
    trois rencontres-débats consacrées aux religions en Afrique. La CADE propose
    ainsi de mieux connaître la place et le rôle des institutions religieuses,
    chrétiennes, musulmanes, ou celles des religions traditionnelles africaines
    à travers leurs responsables, leurs fidèles, leurs activités, au sein des
    sociétés africaines d'aujourd'hui. Albert de Surgy, anthropologue, chercheur
    au CNRS (URA Système de Pensées en Afrique Noire) parlera de la permanence
    et de la créativité des religions africaines. Jean Pierre Dozon, directeur
    de recherche à l'IRD, auteur de la cause des prophètes (Seuil, 95) et
    spécialiste du Harrisme de Côte d'Ivoire et Abel Kouvouama, maître de
    conférences associé à l'Université de Picardie qui vient de soutenir une
    thèse d'Etat sur le Matswanisme au Congo Brazzaville, évoqueront ces deux
    religions très représentatives de la créativité africaines moderne et de
    leurs fonctions économiques, politiques et sociales.


    - 69 - Nouveaux pouvoirs locaux, nouvelles coopérations - Universités de
    printemps 2001, Lyon, du 23 au 24 mars. Resaccop, réseau d'appui à la
    coopération en Rhône Alpes et VSF, vétérinaire sans frontières, organisent
    deux journées d'ateliers de réflexion sur les problématiques agro-pastorales
    en Europe, Afrique, Amérique Latine et Centrale. -


    - Tunisie - Recherche et Culture : Grande Bretagne et Maghreb, Zaghouan, du
    23 au 26 mars. La Fondation Temimi de Zaghouane (Tunisie) accueille, du 23
    au 26 mars 2001, "Grande Bretagne et Maghreb : Vue d'ensemble des contacts
    dans la Recherche et la Culture", première conférence interdisciplinaire
    organisée par le "Centre for Mediterranean Studies" et l' "Institute of Arab
    and Islamic Studies" de l'université d'Exeter (Grande Bretagne). Parmi les
    thèmes abordés : contacts culturels entre la Grande Bretagne et le Maghreb -
    La recherche britannique sur le Maghreb (de l'Antiquité à aujourd'hui) - La
    Grande Bretagne dans l'enseignement maghrébin. Relations politiques,
    économiques et diplomatiques entre la Grande Bretagne et le Maghreb.


    - Contes de superstitions Afro-Caraïbes et Judéo-Arabes, restaurant l'Ogre
    de Barbarie, du 28 au 31 mars. Sonia Koskas - Entre Dorliss et Mauvais OEil,
    Contes de superstitions Afro-Caraïbes et Judéo-Arabes avec la conteuse Suzy


    - 59 - Café littéraire avec Eugène Ebodé, Lille, le 30 mars. Une heure de
    partage avec le poète aux rêves renversants à 19h au Salséro. Eugène Ebodé
    est né en Afrique dite des indépendances. Celle surtout à qui les plus beaux
    lendemains étaient annoncés. Si l'histoire est son obsession, c'est bien
    parce qu'elle seule mène à une analyse de qualité des contextes actuels de l
    'Afrique. "Le briseur de jeu", son roman, paru aux éditions Moreux, est la
    symphonie composée autour de la liberté par un gardien de but jaloux d'un
    jeu auquel, comme à la vie, il faut conserver toute sa poésie.


    - Afrique du Sud - Le temps des écrivains, Durban, du 26 au 31 mars. Un
    festival international de 6 jours qui réunit 15 écrivains de 11 pays pour
    des rencontres, discussions, séminaires sur le thème de "Migrating Words".
    Avec J Bernlef (Netherlands), Mongo Beti (Cameroon), Mia Couto (Mozambique),
    Amma Darko (Ghana), E K M Dido (South Africa), Ronnie Govender (South
    Africa), Alexander Kanengoni (Zimbabwe), Dany Laferrière (Haiti), Christine
    Lincoln (U.S.A.), Mandla Langa (South Africa), Arthur Maimane (South
    Africa), Ernest Pépin (Guadeloupe), Michèle Rakotoson (Madagascar), Hansjörg
    Schertenleib (Switzerland), Zoë Wicomb (South Africa). Programme en détail
    sur le site.


    - Angleterre - London Book Fair, du 25 au 27 mars. Elle accueille des
    séminaires africains, cette année sur le thème "The Business of Reading in


    - Suisse - 17ème Festival Médias Nord-Sud, Genève, du 23 au 30 mars. Une
    semaine unique pour réfléchir en images sur les relations Nord-Sud, sept
    jours pour comprendre les nouveaux enjeux internationaux et rencontrer des
    professionnels des médias venant des quatre coins du monde. Cette année,
    sélectionnés parmi plus de 220 productions, ce sont plus de 30 télévisions
    et 40 réalisateurs indépendants qui présentent leurs reportages,
    s'interrogeant de manière efficace et souvent inédite sur les thèmes liés au
    développement (projection gratuite en journée). Comme chaque année, les
    productions du Sud sont mises en valeur grâce aux prix qui leur sont dédiés
    : le Prix Presse et Démocratie pour l'Afrique francophone (presse écrite),
    le Prix Suisse Radios du Sud (radio) et enfin le Prix Sud-Nord pour
    l'audiovisuel, tous consacrés aux questions de développement, de liberté
    d'expression et de droits de l'homme. Notamment au programme cette année :
    les 23 et 24 mars, un colloque consacré à la presse et à la déontologie,
    précédera les projections des films sélectionnés. Le débat sera orienté sur
    le rôle de la presse face à la prise d'otages. Le 29 mars sera une journée
    consacrée aux droits de l'homme, avec table ronde et concours. Une
    rediffusion des films primés et une rencontre avec les réalisateurs et
    journalistes est prévue le 30 mars. -


    - Au Divan du Monde, Le 25 mars : Danse, Chorégraphie avec Fatima Chekkor
    et ses danseuse orientales.

    - A l'Olympia, le 29 mars : Jimmy Scott.

    - Au Sattelit Café, les 27, 28 et 29 mars : Adjabel.

    - Au New Morning, le 27 mars : Kristo Numpuby.

    - Au Glazart, le 30 mars : Mino Cinelu (ambiances orientales, jazz créole et
    world électronique).

    - Tournée - Jocelyne Labylle, le 28 mars : Show Case Fnac Forum 18h.

    - A la Maison populaire de Montreuil, le 25 mars : Moriba Koita et le


    - 13 - Au Dock des Sud, Marseille, Festival "avec le temps" : le 27 mars :
    Sinsemilia (reggae). Le 29 mars : Faudel (raï épicé d'Algérie) et le 30 mars
    : Passi et 3ème oil.

    - 13 - Concerts à l'Exodus, Marseille, les 15 et 22 Mars : ait Ali (guitare
    et chant kabyle) et les 23 et 24 mars : Lambahoany (malgache fusion).

    - 13 - A la Machine à Coudre, Marseille, le 29 mars : Caraïb Percus
    (percussions traditionnelles des Caraïbes) et le 30 mars : Black Warell
    sound system (reggae).

    - 13 - Au Balthazar, Marseille, le 30 mars : Abdou Day, enfant de
    Madagascar, le 31 mars : Instruction mentale + 100% casa. (hip hop) Et
    After Logique Hip Hop à partir de 1h.

    - 13 - Logique Hip Hop n 6, la Friche Belle de Mai, Marseille, du 29 mars au
    01 avril. Plutôt qu'un festival, Logique hip hop, nouvelle version, reposera
    essentiellement sur 3 résidences / ateliers d'artistes majeurs du hip hop
    international. Pendant une semaine, ces artistes animeront en simultané des
    ateliers de pratiques artistiques dans le domaine du sample, des platines et
    de la danse. Au programme : une soirée danse, une soirée musique, une soirée
    cinéma. Le 29 mars Soirée Cinéma. En collaboration avec le cinéma Les
    Variétés. Projection des films américains : "Black and White" de James
    Toback (2000) et "Whiteboys" de Marc Levin (1999). Le 30 mars Soirée
    Musique : groupes marseillais, Soosol, 1K2+Othello, Plus One (UK)
    (Performance scratch), Collectif New Flesh (UK) Part 2 et Toastie Taylor
    featuring Ramm:Ell:Zee (NYC) as The Barshaw Gangstarr. Le 31 mars Soirée
    Danse Dj's et Mode urbaine, set des Dj participants à l'atelier scratch,
    présentation de l'atelier danse/ défi, The ROCK Steady Crew Show (usa), Mode
    urbaine avec Gwladys Diakité. -

    - 26 - A la Cigale, Nyons, le 24 mars : Jim Murple Mémorial (ska,

    - 29 - Au Passe-Muraille, Le Folgoet, le 24 mars : Toma Sidibé (reggae

    - 31 - Au Bijou, Toulouse, le 20 mars : Youbadi (musique Gnawa).

    - 34 - Tempo Sessions, Montpellier et sa région, du 24 fév. au 21 avril. Le
    25 mars : Lisa Ekdahl. Au Corum (Opéra Berlioz).

    - 34 - A Mauguio, le 23 mars : Hussein El Masry.

    - 35 - Village d'Afrique, Rennes, le 24 mars. Avec Toups Bebey & Pact,
    Positive Black Soul, Guem, Tiken Jah Fakoli, Le Maquisat International. De
    la danse, des animations, des percussions, de la restauration.

    - 35 - A L'Antipode, le 28 mars : Séga Sidibé.

    - 46 - Cahors, le 27 mars : Henri Dikongué.

    - Le Chainon Manquant, Cahors, du 29 au 31 mars. Le 29 mars : Binké Traoré
    et le groupe Kumba (Mali), le 29 mars : "Edition Spéciale" copagnie Hors
    série, Danse Hip Hop. Les 29 et 30 mars : Julien jacob (musiques du monde
    aux racines africaines), le 30 mars : Gnawa Diffusion (métissage de musique
    gnawa, jazz, ragga) ; Positive Radical Sound (reggae-ragga) ; Watcha Clan
    (reggae ragga). Le 31 mars : Fania (musique Sénégal) ; Geoffrey Oryema
    (musique Ouganda) ; Wock (rencontre musicale entre le sud de la France et le
    Sénégal). -

    - 59 - Au Grand Mix, Tourcoing, le 24 mars : I Jah Man Levy (reggae).

    - 69 - Au Marquise, Lyon, le 23 mars : Saul Williams.

    - 80 - Au Café Bissap, Amiens, du 27 au 31 mars : Mamou Sidibé et le 29 mars
    : Kaciamanou Sidibé.

    - 80 - Au Magic Mirror, Amiens, le 27 mars : Super Rail Band de Bamako.

    - 83 - Souffle de rythmes 2001, 4ème Festival Intercommunal Varois, du 05
    mars au 14 avril. Sous la résonnance du jazz, des musiques improvisées, des
    musiques du monde, se côtoient divers artistes aux sonorités, aux rythmes et
    aux origines pluriels dans cinq villes du Var. Cette 4ème édition propose
    d'ingénieuses rencontres entre l'Occident et l'Afrique, le jazz et les
    Antilles sous l'élan de l'échange et de la réciprocité. Le 23 mars, 21h00,
    Hyères : Christine Wodrascka, piano et Yves Romain, contrebasse. Le 25 mars,
    15h00, Hyères : Quartet "africain". Jean-Jacques Avenel, contrebasse et
    kora ; Yakhouba Sissoko, kora ; Lansiné Kouyaté, balafon ; Michel Edelin,
    flûtes. En première partie du concert : prestation du groupe djembé des
    adolescents varois ayant participé aux échanges culturels au Mali. Le 29
    mars, 21h00, Hyères : Caraïbes Jazz Fusion. En première partie du concert :
    prestation du groupe hebdomadaire varois de djembé. Le 30 mars, Le Pradet :
    Quintet Occidento-Malien, le 1er avril, 18h00, Carqueiranne : Duo Sabir
    Mateen, saxo et Tom Bruno, batterie.

    - 92 - Théâtre de Suresnes Jean Villar, Suresnes, le 24 mars : Dikès, "à
    vif". Originaire d'Algérie, Dikès nous entraîne dans un univers métissé où
    se côtoient le blues, le flamenco, la musique tzigane et orientale, les
    textes et la voix chaude et rocailleuse.

    - 92 - Au Théâtre de Vanves, le 28 mars : Rezerv.

    - 92 - Chorus des Hauts-de-Seine, du 13 mars au 01 avril. 180 concerts,
    trois semaines de festival, plusieurs lieux, plein d'artistes et beaucoup de
    chansons. Cette année le festival Chorus propose une rencontre de la chanson
    du monde autour du Portugal jusqu'aux rythmes brésiliens et africains. On y
    retrouvera : Le 23 mars : Ramiro Naka (Guinée-Bissau) à Issy-les-Moulineaux
    et le 30 mars : Bïa (Brésil) à Levallois, l'Orchestre National de Barbès à
    Bagneux -

    - 93 - Banlieues Bleues, du 02 mars au 04 avril. Banlieues bleues est le
    festival de Seine-Saint-Denis entièrement consacré au jazz dans toute sa
    créativité et sa diversité. Pour cette 18 ème édition, 37 soirées sont
    prévues dans 17 villes de Seine-Saint-Denis. Deux soirées africaines : Le 23
    mars : Dieuf Dieul, 8 jeunes musiciens sénégalais menés par le chanteur et
    danseur Tidiane Gaye, un métissage urbain et rural des musiques d'Afrique de
    l'ouest. Femi Kuti & The Positive Force, le fils incontestable du maître de
    l'afro-beat. Le 30 mars à Villepinte donnera à entendre deux formations
    haïtiennes. Frisner Augustin joue des percussions dans la tradition musicale
    haïtienne des rythmes vaudou. Beethova Obas est parolier, interprète,
    auteur-compositeur et mèle les traditions haïtiennes au swing créole et à la
    bossa nova.

    - Tournée - Idir (chant kabyle), le 30 mars : Cannes (6) Théâtre Palais
    Croisette Noga, le 31 mars : Le Thor (84) Auditorium de Vaucluse.

    - Tournée - A.R.M. Posse (reggae, ragga), le 23 mars : au Café de la Plage
    (Maurepas - 78) et le 25 mars : à La Clef / L'Eclipse (St Germain en Laye -

    - Tournée - Guem (percussions), le 23 mars : Niort (79) Espace culturel
    Leclerc, le 24 mars : Rennes (35) le Liberté, le 27 mars : Bordeaux (33)
    Rock School Barbey, le 28 mars : Toulouse (31) le Bikini, le 29 mars :
    Saint Jean De Vedas (34) Victoire 2, le 30 mars : Marseille 13 (13) Le

    - Tournée - l'Orchestre national de Barbès, le 23 mars : Annonay, le 24 mars
    : Saint Etienne, le 30 mars : Bagneux, Espace Léo Ferré, le 31 mars : Vélizy

    - Tournée - Cheb Mami, le 23 mars à Grenoble, Summum, le 30 mars à Bordeaux,
    Salle Bellegrave et le 31 mars à Toulouse, Confluent.

    - Tournée - Régis Gizavo, le 24 mars : Valkenswaard (H) et le 27 mars :
    Amiens, Festival.

    - Tournée - Tempo Forte, le 24 mars : La Bodeguita de la salsa, St Etienne
    (42), le 28 mars : Le Rouge-Gorge, Avignon (84), le 29 mars : Jazz Action
    Valence, Valence (26), les 30 et 31 mars : El Habana Café, Toulouse (31).

    - Tournée - Rokia Traoré, le 23 : Foix, le 25 : Pau et le 27 : St Brieuc, le
    27 : St Brieuc, le 29 : Amiens, le 31 : La Rochelle, Coursive et le 1er
    avril : Amiens (80), Maison de la culture.

    - Tournée - Boubacar Traoré, le 23 mars : Foix et le 27 mars : St Brieuc, le
    31 mars : La Rochelle et le 1er avril : Amiens, Maison de la culture

    - Tournée - Adama Dramé, le 30 mars : Strasbourg (67) Laiterie et le 31 mars
    : Mulhouse (68) Noumatrouff.

    - Tournée - Toma Sidibé, le 24 mars : Le Folgoet (29) Le Passe Muraille, le
    28 mars : Amiens (80) Restaurant de Saint Leu et le 30 mars : Meilars (29)
    Le Lambretta.


    - Côte d'Ivoire - Dunhill International Jazz Festival, Abidjan, du 23 au 25
    mars. Le festival regroupera des artistes de renommée internationale autour
    du tout nouveau Palais de la Culture pour un voyage au cour du jazz et des
    rythmes contemporains de l'Afrique. Des activités à connotation musicale, de
    la peinture à la photo, en passant par la danse et la sculpture permettront
    de découvrir le meilleur de la créativité et de la musique d'Afrique. Au
    programme de cette 3eme édition : des Concerts avec Femi Kuti (Nigéria),
    Alan Adote et Soul Connexion (Burkino-béninois), Diane Reeves (Etats-Unis),
    Manu Dibango (Cameroun), Sabor A Son (Cubain), Paco Sery (Côte d'Ivoire).
    Des expositions photos avec Samuel Nja Kwa (chroniqueur musical d'
    Africultures), "La Route du Jazz" (Cameroun), exposition des photos de jazz
    de la BBC (Côte d'Ivoire). Des expositions de peintres ivoiriens, de
    sculpteurs béninois et guinéens. Spectacle de danse avec la Troupe "Les Gos
    du Koteba" (Côte d'Ivoire). Des rencontres entre les artistes et les
    journalistes, une Conférence / débat avec Paco Sery et les élèves de l'
    INSAAC. Projection de film sur le jazz.

    - Egypte - Festival de musiques traditionnelles en Haute - Egypte, Gourna,
    du 18 au 25 mars. Le festival de Gourna (Louxor) propose une rencontre des
    musiques sacrées et populaires du monde arabe en terre égyptienne. Cette
    3ème édition, au delà de l'affirmation de la seule culture musicale soufie
    égyptienne, mettra en scène la communauté et la variété de ces musiques dans
    l'ensemble du monde arabe. Les caractéristiques communes à ces groupes aux
    expressions très différentes sont les aspects spirituels : ce sont des
    musiques qui opèrent une élévation de soi-même et impliquent une communion
    avec le public, un transport partagé. Ainsi cette année la programmation
    réunira à la musique soufi égyptienne, celle du Soudan et celle des Gnawas
    du Maroc. Une des vocations du festival est d'initier des rencontres et des
    collaborations entre les différents groupes artistiques, tous les musiciens
    invités resteront à Gourna durant la durée du festival. Des ateliers de
    sensibilisation et de rencontres avec les artistes précéderont les scéances
    musicales. Programme : le 19 mars : Hagga Sannaa, le Caire, le 20 mars :
    Al-Tuyur, Gnawa, Essaouira, Maroc, le 21 mars : Cheikh Ahmad Al-Tûni,
    El-Hawatika (Assyut), le 22 mars : Ismael Muhammad Ali, Khartoum, Soudan, le
    23 mars : Cheikh Ahmad Barrayn, Esna, le 24 mars : Cheikh Amin El-Dichnawy,
    Dichna. -

    - Burkina Faso - Jazz à Ouaga 2001, se tiendra du 23 au 31 mars 2001 à
    Ouagadougou et Bobo-Dioulasso en partenariat avec le Centre Culturel
    Français Henri Matisse. Cette année la programmation sera axée autour du
    thème "Jazz et musiques du monde" et réunira des groupes de France, du
    Sénégal, de la Réunion, du Mali et du Burkina Faso bien sûr, mais au-delà
    des concerts Jazz à Ouaga 2001 mettra l'accent sur l'esprit qui a présidé à
    la naissance de ce festival : la rencontre ; rencontres autour des concerts,
    rencontres à travers les ateliers de formation musicale des musiciens
    vivants au Burkina Faso animés par les artistes invités et enfin rencontres
    conviviales au Zaka, Village du jazz. A Ouagadougou (Cenasa, CCFGM ) et à
    Bobo-Dioulasso au CCFHenri Matisse, la 9è édition du Festival International
    Jazz à Ouaga accueillera les artistes suivants : Sabouk (la Réunion -
    France), Ali Farka Touré, Wakatikoro (Mali), Farafina (Burkina), Walflash,
    Starczan Bros(France) et de nombreux invités.


    - Allemagne - Geoffrey Oryema/ Sally Nyolo en concert le 17 mars à Bonn.

    - Guyane - Rapé Lafontenn, Kamalakuli, le 31 mars. Dans le cadre du Temps
    des Poètes, l'Association Krakémanto organise "Rapé La Fontaine" Seront
    présents les rapeurs suivants : DJ Dabac, Ice Lova, Maxi dready,
    Ramiman, Sugar Kawa, Super Sensi, Two face. Les fables seront rapées en
    bouchinengétongo et en kréyòl. Durant le spectacle il sera distribué au
    public des traductions en bouchinengétongo, français, kali'na et kréyòl. -


    Paris :
    - Afrique tout partout partager, Galeries Lafayette, du 21 fév. au 31 mars.
    A l'occasion de la parution du livre de photographies "Afrique tout partout
    partager", de Catherine et Bernard Desjeux, (Editions Grandvaux, préface de
    Ray Lema).
    - Black & Blue, La Scène, du 01 au 31 mars. Pour la première fois, le
    club-restaurant "la Scène" accueille une exposition photos. Ces images,
    extraites de la comédie musicale américaine "Black & Blue", sont signées du
    photographe Dou Matar.
    - Zwelethu Mthethwa (Afrique du Sud), jusqu'au 3 avril de 12 h à 19 h à
    l'Hôtel Salomon de Rotschild, entrée gratuite le 1er avril.


    - Festival de l'imaginaire, du 27 fév. au 07 avril. Le festival de
    l'imaginaire invite à une découverte des autres cultures et des autres
    civilisations au travers de leurs expressions artistiques qu'il s'agisse de
    chants populaires, de danses traditionnelles, de cérémonies rituelles...
    Cette année sont notamment présentés : les 23 et 24 mars à 20h30, le 25 mars
    à 17 h, Théâtre equestre Zingaro (Aubervilliers). Le Stambali de Tunisie,
    les Gnawas de Tunis. Le stambali est un culte afro-tunisien de possession.
    Il s'agit d'un cérémonie rituelle thérapeutique animée par un groupe de


    - 33 - MC2a, Bordeaux. Exposition "Soundiata Keïta - Dessins de Konaté
    Diabaliba - Paroles de griots". Du 28 février au 28 mars à Porte 2a -
    Animation musicale avec la participation de griots les samedis après-midi à
    Porte2a. Soundiata Keïta, fondateur historique de l'empire du Mali (ou
    Manding) au XIIIème siècle, est la figure centrale d'un long chant épique
    transmis de génération en génération par les griots. Konaté Dialiba a
    illustré pour la première fois, en plus de 160 dessins, la geste de
    Soundiata Keïta, un des épisodes les plus marquants de l'histoire africaine
    et le ciment de la culture malinké. Conte : Samedi 31 mars à 15h avec Adama

    - 40 - Terra Incognita, Rezé, du 24 mars au 07 avril. Terra Incognita un
    festival de rencontre autour des cultures du Maghreb. Cette nouvelle
    manifestation pluridisciplinaire a pour but de s'ouvrir à l'ensemble des
    cultures du monde et sera axée pour sa première édition sur les cultures du
    Maghreb. Elle propose De nombreux concerts, ateliers de Bande Dessinée,
    stages de Danse Orientale, de percussions. Contes en appartement, marché
    oriental, Lectures publiques, Tables rondes, cinéma, soirées rencontres avec
    la culture du Maghreb vue par les habitants du quartier. Programme sur le

    - 59 - Les Météores, Douais, du 16 au 31 mars. Festival International des
    Langues Françaises. Le festival des Météores met à l'honneur les langues
    françaises dans toutes leurs expressions : théâtre, chanson, cinéma,
    spectacle, lecture, musique du monde... Cette cinquième édition nous
    permettra de cotôyer les cultures méditerranéennes au travers des ponts
    tissés entre Marseille et Alger mais aussi celles de l'Océan Indien et de la
    Réunion avec notamment comme invité d'honneur la Troupe du théâtre Talipot.
    Des ateliers d'écritures, théâtre, voix et corps sont également prévus. Le
    programme détaillé dans la page "événements Africultures"

    - 76 - Les Couleurs de l'Afrique Noire, Yvetot, du 13 mars au 07 avril. La
    Médiathèque Guy de Maupassant propose une série d'animations et
    d'expositions aux couleurs de l'Afrique. Expositions "Le Continent
    africain", Médiathèque. "Kumba", Rêve et réalité à travers un conte
    sénégalais, Ecole de musique. "Sagesse, Sagesses, hommage d'Afrique" à Jean
    de la Fontaine, Mairie d'Yvetot. "Jouets africains", Médiathèque. Du 20 mars
    au 9 avril : "Bassins teintés d'Afrique de l'Ouest" de Frédéric Paillet,
    Médiathèque, école de musique. Animations : le 17 mars : "Melting Peaux",
    collectif de djembé, 14h, Médiathèque. Le 31 mars : Rencontre avec Dominique
    Mwankumi, auteur, illustrateur d'albums pour enfants et Janine Kotwica,
    agrégée de lettres modernes. Médiathèque. Rencontre avec Alain Mabanckou,
    écrivain congolais, Absourahman A. Waberi, écrivain djiboutien et Lecture à
    voix haute par Brigitte Ponty et Chantal Lemonnier, accompagnées au djembé
    par Ibrahima Faye. Espace Les Vikings.

    - 83 - week-end de solidarité avec le Burkina Faso, Solliès-Toucas, du 24 au
    25 mars. Les Amis de CLarisse Et de la Fondation,
    Charles-Dufour-Ouaga-Toucas (L.A.CL.E.F.) organisent un week-end spécial "un
    Bus pour Ouaga" . Au programme : exposition - vente d'artisanat du Monde,
    sam & dim de 9h à 19h, exposition photo "Voyage au Sénégal" de Christian
    Galibert, tournoi d'awalé. Cette manifestation permettra à l'association de
    continuer son action dans le but d'envoyer un bus de 20 places à
    l'orphelinat Charles-Dufour de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.


    - Bénin - Médiathèque des diasporas de Cotonou. Le 29 mars : Discussions en
    langue nationale "fon".

    - Sénégal - 3ème Festival EcoArt, Yoff, Dakar, du 22 au 26 mars. Le
    Programme EcoCommunautaire de Yoff en collaboration avec le Ministère de la
    Culture et le Conseil International des Organisations de Festival et de
    Folklore (CIOFF) vous invitent à partager une réflexion et des activités
    Culturelles de début de Siècle et du Troisième Millénaire. Cette troisième
    édition d'Eco - Art propose : un Forum sur les traditions culturelles et
    écologiques au 21è siècle. La célébration de la journée internationale de
    l'eau dans la danse et la musique. Des ateliers sur la spiritualité, le
    rythme et la danse. Le thème générique du Festival est : L'homme et son
    environnement, les traditions culturelles et artistiques qui célèbre la
    cohabitation entre les peuples de l'eau et leur milieu : les océans, lacs,
    rivières et zones humides.

    - Niger - Centre Culturel de Niamey. Exposition : du 5 mars au 2 avril, Yves
    Midahuen, plasticien béninois. Du 3 au 29 avril : Alhousseini Touré,
    plasticien. Théâtre : 10èmes Rencontres Théâtrales de Niamey : le 22 mars :
    "Jeunesse opprimée" de Idrissa Amadou, par la troupe Soutoura (Niger), le 23
    mars : "Mamrouka, la dernière des justes" de Idi Nouhou par Les Tréteaux du
    Niger (Niger), le 24 mars : "Le Solstice" adaptation de "La Nuit du
    solstice" d'Evelyne Fagnen par athanase Kabré, La compagnie du fil (Burkina
    Faso), le 25 mars : "Purgatoire non aligné" de Edouard Lompo et Tiémogo
    Ibrahim, La troupe du lycée Kassaï (Niger), le 26 mars : "Un appel de nuit"
    de Jean-baptiste Dossou-Yovo, La compagnie Clab (Niger), le 27 mars :
    "Jonquet Rue 12" d'Euloge Béo Aguiar, la compagnie Béo Aguiar (Bénin), le 28
    mars : "Le Cid" adaptation d'Edmond Laoual Bachir, compagnie Les Nomades
    d'Agadez (Niger), le 29 mars : "Le Prix de l'ignorance" adaptation de "La
    Camisole de paille" de Adamou Idé par Saadou Cissé, compagnie du Mariama
    (niger). A la maison de la culture Diado Sékou, le 23 mars : "Les Fourches
    caudines d'un père" par la compagnie Cheick Anta Diop (Niamey), le 24 mars :
    "L'Enfant maudit" par le club culturel des émissaires (Niamey), le 28 mars :
    "Nachata" par la compagnie Bayani (Niamey). Conférences : le 27 mars
    (journée mondiale du théâtre) : Développement des arts du spectacle, le 29
    mars : Culture africaine et 3ème millénaire. Concert : les 28, 29 et 30 mars
    : Super Niamey (Niger), le 31 mars : Sabouk, musique de la Réunion. -


    - USA - Smithsonian National Museum of African Art, Washington. Jusqu'au 8
    avril 2001 : "Audible Artworks : Selected African Musical Instruments".
    Jusqu'au 2 avril 2001 : "Identity of the Sacred : Two Nigerian Shrine


    - 93 - Les Migans Poétiques, Centre culturel du Théâtre de l'Air nouveau,
    Pantin, du 19 au 25 mars. Les Migans poétiques sont des soirées poétiques
    durant toute une semaine autour des ouvres poétiques des pays craïbes et
    d'Afrique. Cette troisième édition met à l'honneur la poésie haïtienne, un
    "lyannaj" entre comédiens en herbe et comédiens confirmés avec la complicité
    du public. Lecture spectacle avec Daniely Francisque, Harry Baltus, Luc
    Saint-Eloy, accompagnés par Erol Josué au chant et par Alain Castaings aux
    percusiions. En présence de Maggy de Coster et Clorinde Zéphir, poétesses à


    - Gabon - Semaine des Poètes, Centre Culturel Français St Ex Libreville,
    Libreville, du 26 au 31 mars. Durant cette semaine dédiée à la poésie sont
    prévues : Exposition - jeu concours, quinze textes poétiques à découvrir et
    à associaer au portrait de quinze grand poétes. Récital de poèmes, le 29
    mars : De grands comédiens gabonais réciteront au cours de cette soirée des
    poèmes. Atelier d'écriture du 27 au 30 mars : Animé par Allogho Oké
    (directeur du théâtre national).


    - "Combat de nègre et de chiens", Théâtre de la Ville, du 28 fév. au 17 mars
    : une création de Bernard-Marie Koltès et Jacques Nichet. Un conte africain
    "Il suffit d'un geste fou, un geste épique : se graver sur les joues les
    marques tribales de la fidélité pour répondre la folie du monde"...

    - "Le Ventriloque", Théâtre international de langue française, du 07 mars au
    14 avril. Une nouvelle création du TILF : "Le Ventriloque" de l'auteur
    québécois Larry Tremblay, dans une mise en scène de Gabriel Garran avec
    Valérie Decobert et Hassane Kouyaté. Le Ventriloque est une pièce
    inclassable, fantasmatique qui tourne autour de deux personnages, une femme
    blanche et un homme noir, qui prennent tour à tour de multiples identités :
    ventriloque/poupée, adolescente/thérapeute... On y retrouve le thème, cher à
    Gabriel Garran, de l'africanité comme révélateur de l'ambivalence culturelle
    contemporaine : un ventriloque noir, une quête menant en Afrique, une mort
    placée sous le signe du vaudou... Interprété par Hassane Kouyaté, comédien
    originaire du Burkina Faso, né d'une famille de griots, il est conteur,
    musicien, danseur. Le 31 mars : atelier avec Hassane Kouyaté, inscriptions

    - Bureau National des Allogènes de Stanislas Cotton, Centre Wallonie -
    Bruxelles, du 30 au 31 mars. Dans le cadre du festival Théâtre en Compagnies
    VI, est jouée la pièce "Bureau National des Allogènes" de Stanislas Cotton,
    mise en scène de Christine Delmotte avec Ansou Diedhiou et Michelangelo
    Marchese. Un homme blanc et un homme noir nous racontent successivement la
    même histoire selon leur propre vision du monde : des manières différentes
    de se présenter, d'accueillir l'autre, de se parler, d'autres convenances,
    d'autres rapports au temps, à sa propre histoire. Rigobert Rigodon est
    fonctionnaire au Ministère National des Allogènes : interrogateur bureau 7,
    sixième étage, extension 214. (On dit aussi l'Office des étrangers, le
    centre de tri, la gare de triage.) C'est un mort qui nous parle, qui se
    souvient. de sa rencontre avec Barthélémy Bongo. Ansou Diedhiou est comédien
    sénégalais. Il a fondé et dirigé la compagnie des Gueules Tapées à Dakar.
    Une prouction de la compagnie Biloxi 48.


    - 67 - Mascarades, Théâtre de la manufacture, Colmar, du 30 au 31 mars. La
    compagnie des acteurs de bonne foi mène un travail de recherche sur une
    forme contemporaine de théâtre de masques. Leur dernière création
    "Mascarades", dont le texte est de Kossi Efoui, est présentée à Colmar dans
    le cadre du Festival Les Inclassables.

    - Tournée - "Les Nègres" de Jean Genet, Vitry-Sur-Seine, du 22 janv. au 20
    avril. Mise en scène Alain Ollivier. La pièce sera ensuite présentée en
    tournée. Les 28 et 29 mars : Théâtre de la Cité, théâtre national de
    Toulouse, Le 31 mars : Théâtre Apollinaire, La Seyne-sur-Mer. Cf critique et
    interview dans Africultures 37 et prochainement sur le site.


    Vous trouverez, dans le plus grand détail, toutes les émissions concernant l
    'Afrique programmées à la télé au jour le jour sur :

    Avec notamment :

    - Le 25 mars sur Histoire à 21h : Valdiodio N'Diaye. En 1962, Valdiodio
    N'Diaye "tente de renverser" le Président Senghor.

    - Le 25 mars sur Cinéstar 1 à 23h15 : Le cri du coeur de Idrissa Ouedraogo,
    Burkina, 94 avec Richard Bohringer, Saïd Diarra, Félicité Wouassi, Alex

    - Le 27 mars sur Planète à 20h : Black Paroles. De cette interview croisée,
    enrichie de témoignages d'artistes noirs, rappeurs, et d'Attilah, fille de
    Malcolm X, ressort une implacable dénonciation de la société américaine,
    "système esclavagiste remodelé en système d'oppression nationale". Le roi
    Jones (Amiri Baraka), figure emblématique du Black Arts Movement, et Leonard
    Jeffries, universitaire, apôtre controversé de l'afrocentrisme, affirment
    que les blancs se sont aplliqués à "blanchir" l'histoire afin de nier
    l'apport de la civilisation africaine.

    - Le 28 mars sur France 3 à 23h20 : Algérie, autopsie d'un massacre,
    présentée par Elise Lucet. En 1998, dans la région de Relizane, une tuerie a
    fait au moins 400 morts. Officiellement attribué au GIA, le massacre a été
    filmé par l'armée islamique du salut. La réalisatrice s'interroge sur la
    manipulation et l'interprétation de ces images.

    - Le 29 mars sur Canal Jimmy à 21h : The Greatest, film de Tom Gries, 77,
    avec Muhammad Ali. Muhammad Ali interprète ici son propre rôle.

    3) RADIO

    L'Afrique à la radio :


    Les sorties, les rumeurs, les prix, les informations etc.
    Pour ne pas surcharger la lettre nous ne donnons pas le détail de l'
    information. Vous le trouvez sur :


    - Cybercentres : L'INTIF lance un appel à projets pour la mise en oeuvre
    cybercentres pour la jeunesse (PAJE). L'Institut francophone des nouvelles
    technologies de l'information et de la formation (INTIF) de l'Agence
    intergouvernementale de la Francophonie lance un appel à candidatures dans
    le cadre de son programme de "Points d'accès aux inforoutes pour la jeunesse
    (PAJE)". Cet appel à propositions prévoit la sélection de 12 à 15 projets
    d'implantation de PAJE. Le programme PAJE s'inscrit dans le cadre du Plan
    d'action de Montréal qui vise notamment à favoriser l'accès aux inforoutes.
    Il s'agit d'implanter, dans les pays du Sud et de l'Est, membres de l'Agence
    intergouvernementale de la Francophonie, et au sein d'organisations
    particulièrement ouvertes aux jeunes, des points d'accès qui leur permettent
    d'accéder à l'Internet pour y trouver des informations, communiquer avec
    d'autres jeunes, participer à des projets communs, etc. Ces points d'accès
    peuvent être implantés dans différentes structures oeuvrant déjà auprès des
    jeunes, notamment dans des établissements d'enseignement, des centres
    communautaires, des organisations de jeunes, etc. Peuvent faire acte de
    candidature, les organisations scolaires, associatives ou communautaires
    reconnues, situées dans les pays du Sud et de l'Est, membres de l'Agence de
    la Francophonie, et qui ouvrent déjà auprès de la jeunesse à l'exclusion des
    organisations de type commercial. Les dossiers complets devront être reçus
    impérativement avant le 13 mai 2001 par télécopie (dossiers dactylographiés)
    ou par la poste. Un guide de présentation des candidatures peut être
    téléchargé sur le site

    - Conférence "film et histoire" : Film and History Conference. University of
    Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa, 6-8 July, 2002. This
    conference aims to stimulate research in the field of film and history in
    Africa by bringing together scholars from within and beyond the continent.
    The organisers particularly invite papers within the following areas: 1)
    Africa in film. We would hope that there would be panels on, for example,
    the representation of Francophone Africa's past; Apartheid South Africa in
    documentary, docudrama or feature film; Postcolonial Africa/the New South
    Africa in documentary. 2) The problem of historical representation on film,
    whether documentary or feature film. 3) Hollywood's historical
    controversies. Papers would be welcome on Hollywood's treatment of the past
    in such films as Gladiator, U-571, The Patriot or any of their predecessors.
    4) Alternatives to Hollywood history. We invite papers which deal either
    with the treatment of the past in national cinemas other than the American,
    or on films which challenge Hollywood representations of the past in form or
    content, or both. 5) The question of representing the Holocaust on film. 6)
    The city/urban in film. Papers would be welcome which deal either with the
    representation of the urban in general in film, or which deal with
    particular cities. 7) Biographical films. Papers on either feature films or
    documentaries would be welcome. 8) Television histories, whether
    documentaries or docudramas. 9) Postcoloniality in film beyond Africa.
    Proposals/abstracts for papers (maximum 200 words) and an abbreviated c.v.
    should be sent to one of the following by 1 July, 2001. -

    - Musique : Recherche de musiciens africains pour un festival au USA. Un
    festival de musique africaine aura lieu du 25 au 31 août en Caroline du Nord
    (USA). Des musiciens du Sénégal, Mali, Côte D'Ivoire, Afrique du Sud et
    Cameroun sont attendus et peuvent envoyer leur candidatures avant le 1 mai
    01. The Research Triangle Park accueille le festival ; ce pôle technique et
    de recherche est une zone multiculturelle. Un village africain y sera mis en

    - Maghreb : "Patrimoine culturel et langues au Maghreb. Contacts et
    variations" est un colloque international organisé par le Centre de
    Recherche en Anthropologie Sociale et culturelle (CRASC) en Janvier 2002.
    Traditions et productions culturelles de l'aire maghrébine seront
    appréhendées à travers des processus dynamiques (contacts et variations)
    afin d'en mesurer les effets dans leur dimension diachronique et
    synchronique. Cette interrogation privilégiera l'axe langagier puisque, pour
    une grande part, les modalités d'expression des pratiques culturelles,
    passées et présente, se manifestent, dans beaucoup de cas, par des usages
    linguistiques multiples et complexes. Le colloque 'Patrimoine culturel et
    langues au Maghreb' vise à rassembler des recherches qui intègrent des
    approches pluridisciplinaires : anthropologiques, linguistiques,
    historiques, sociologiques et littéraires autour d'objets constitués à l'
    intérieur des sphères établies de l'activité et de la création culturelles
    (musique, littérature, théâtre, expressions plastiques, cinéma, etc.) ou
    davantage inscrits dans des pratiques sociales ritualisées (manifestations
    festives, rituels initiatiques ou sacrificiels, etc.). La perspective
    retenue est de privilégier les études de terrain, l'analyse de nouveaux
    matériaux sans négliger pour autant l'examen critique des études
    antérieures. Cette rencontre donc a moins l'ambition de présenter un bilan
    de recherches abouties que de configurer les nouveaux espaces d'
    investigation, de débattre des méthodologies à mettre en ouvre et d'offrir
    des perspectives de recherches nouvelles pour impulser la réflexion et l'
    étude des domaines visés. Les axes d'intervention doivent privilégier les
    deux modalités centrales de cette rencontre, les contacts et les variations.
    Les chercheurs intéressés sont invités à faire part de leur contribution
    (intitulé et résumé ne dépassant pas un feuillet) avant le 15 juin 2001. - -

    - Conférence littérature : "Repenser la littérature de la diaspora africaine
    : les contributions littéraires des africains d'Europe, du Canada et
    d'Amérique Latine". Conférence se tenant les 11 et 12 oct. 01, University of
    New York. Propositions à remettre avant le 30 avril.

    - Colloque : Un appel à communication est lancé pour le colloque
    interdisciplinaire "Identité, Identités" se tenant à Poitiers les 23, 24 et
    25 janvier 2002. Sont concernées les disciplines telles que les Sciences
    Humaines et Sociales, mais aussi les Sciences Juridiques et les Sciences de
    la Vie. Ce colloque est organisé par la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme et
    de la Société de Poitiers (Université de Poitiers, CNRS UMS 842) dans le
    cadre de ses Troisièmes Journées Scientifiques Interdisciplinaires. -

    - Soutien à l'édition francophone de jeunesse : Au titre de son Fonds de
    soutien à l'édition, l'agence intergouvernementale de la Francophonie lance
    le 15 mars un deuxième appel en faveur de l'édition pour la jeunesse. Tous
    les genres, illustrés ou non sont admis, à l'exception des manuels
    scolaires. L'objet de cet appel est de participer à la constitution d'un
    fonds d'ouvrages de qualité qui corresponde aux réalités des jeunes lecteurs
    des pays francophones du Sud et dont le prix public soit adapté au pouvoir
    d'achat des populations cibles. Les projets doivent être présentés par des
    entreprises ou organismes des pays membres de la Francophonie du Sud ou des
    entreprises ou organismes du Nord en situation de partenariat avec ceux du
    Sud. -


    News :

    - Maroc : Le premier Festival international de Marrakech se déroulera du 28
    septembre au 2 octobre sous l'égide du roi Mohamed VI. Daniel Toscan du
    Plantier, initiateur du projet, sera à la tête du comité exécutif du
    Festival, composé de personnalités marocaines. Sophie Marceau sera
    présidente. Une cinquantaine de films en compétition, avec notamment des
    films indiens et arabes.

    - Cinéma : Bourse en scénarisation pour les réalisatrices des pays du Sud.
    Vues d'Afrique et l'Agence Intergouvernementale de la Francophonie lance une
    nouvelle bourse en scénarisation de long métrages fiction au profit des
    réalisatrices des pays du Sud, membres de l'Agence. D'une valeur de 50 000
    FF., la bourse sera remise lors des Journées Africaines et créoles de Vues
    d'Afrique qui auront lieu à Montréal du 20 au 29 avril. Les conditions
    'attribution sont disponibles sur le sites : et Les candidates doivent envoyer leur dossier à Vues
    d'Afrique : 67 rue ste Catherine Ouest, 5e étage, Montréal, Québec H2X 1Z7.

    - Algérie : Yamina Benguigui s'est rendue à Alger pour tourner la première
    scène de son long métrage. "Inchallah dimanche" a pour scène d'ouverture le
    départ d'Alger "forcé" de la jeune Zouina qui part en France retrouver un
    mari qu'elle connaît à peine. C'est sur l'exil des femmes maghrébines que
    se penche le premier long métrage de Yamina Benguigui, elle-même fille
    d'immigrés algériens. "le film relate les balbutiements de l'émancipation
    des femmes maghrébines en France, et dévoile leur trauma d'exilées forçées."
    Le film est attendu en nov. 01 - Source : Télérama du 7 mars 01

    - Cuba : la réalisatrice afro-cubaine Gloria Rolando en tournée aux USA pour
    présenter son dernier film "Raices de Mi Corazon" (Roots of My Heart).

    Sorties :

    - Sierra Léone : Sortie le 25 avril de "Nouvel Ordre Mondial (Quelque part
    en Afrique)", un film de Philippe Diaz. Critique dans Africultures n°37 et
    prochainement sur le site d'Africultures.

    - Le 21 mars, sont sortis en France de "The very black show / Bamboozled" de
    Spike Lee, ainsi que de Ali Zaoua .de Nabil Ayouch (grand prix Fespaco
    2001). Cf critiques sur le site.


    - Bénin : Bénin Info, un magazine électronique qui propose l'actualité et la
    presse béninoise. Dans le but de rendre plus perceptibles les échos de la
    presse béninoise, le Centre de Documentation des Services de l'Information
    (CDSI) vient de lancer un journal électronique sur la toile dénommé
    Bénin-Info. Hébergé à l'adresse Source :

    - Bénin : Un site web sur La Route des Esclaves de Ouidah primé lors d'un
    concours international. Le prix pour le site au meilleur contenu du concours
    international de sites web organisé par le projet "Ouidah, la route du
    retour". Il se propose de refaire le sentier des esclaves afin de relater
    les faits comme le décrit l'histoire tout en faisant un clin d'oeil sur la
    motivation et les problématiques soulevées actuellement par Ouidah et la
    Route de l'Esclave. Cette contribution peut être visualisée à l'adresse : Ce concours devait
    primer des sites web conçus par des jeunes âgés de 25 ans au plus, sites à
    contenus articulés autour de leurs préoccupations. Les participants du Bénin
    ont été formés à l'informatique, à l'internet, à la production de pages web
    et encadrés par Oridev pour le projet. Deux catégories de prix avaient été
    prévues : un prix pour le site au meilleur contenu, et un prix pour le
    meilleur site sur le plan de la technique. Le projet Fragments du Monde est
    une initiative de l'association européenne VECAM, exécuté avec l'appui
    d'institutions comme l'INJEP (institut National de la Jeunesse et de
    l'Education Populaire) en France et les associations comme le CFP (Canada),
    Oridev (Bénin), le CCF de Dakar, Franconet de la Côte d'Ivoire, etc. - Source :


    News :

    - Ouganda : Publication d'un Annuaire des Ecrivains Ougandais de fiction.
    Grâce à cet Annuaire, le premier dans son genre, l'Alliance française de
    Kampala souhaite faire mieux connaître la création littéraire locale, ainsi
    que celles et ceux qui en sont à l'origine. Son ambition est d'être un
    ouvrage de référence, à la fois outil et vitrine, et le viatique d'une
    découverte plus approfondie. La conception de cet annuaire est le fruit d'un
    partenariat entre l'AFK et FEMRITE, une des plus dynamiques associations
    locales de promotion de la littérature. "Uganda Creative Writers Directory"
    (Annuaire des Ecrivains Ougandais de fiction), Les Cahiers, n°3, Alliance
    Française / Femrite, 00.

    Publications :

    - "The Landscape of African Music.", Research in African Literatures, Vol.
    32, n° 2, Kofi Agawu. Un numéro spécial qui explore les musiques
    africaines, contribution de nombreux auteurs.

    - "Alternatives africaines", Numéro 34. Propose un dossier sur 'Les
    intellectuels africains et la France'.

    - "Cahiers Caribéens d'Egyptologie" n°2, février/mars2001, Madame Ghislaine
    Anglionin - Editions Tyanaba - 27 rue de la Gare, 94230 Cachan.

    - "Le Margouillat", le mensuel endémique très BD de la Réunion, n°6. Avec
    une interview du musicien réunionnais Gilbert Pounia.

    - "Schweizer Afrika-Bibliographie" (Bibliographie Africaine Suisse), n°24,
    99-00, Société suisse d'Etudes africaines, avec la liste de toutes les
    publications sur deux ans.

    - "Anthropologies, Etats et populations" Revue de Synthèse 3/4,
    juillet-décembre 2000. Le projet du numéro est comparatif, mais certains
    articles concernent davantage sur l'Afrique ou la "diaspora africaine": Adam
    Kuper : "Comment nommer les éléments ? Les catégories anthropologiques en
    Afrique du Sud. Benoît de L'Estoile : "Science de l'homme et domination
    rationnelle" : savoir ethnologique et politique indigène en Afrique
    coloniale française. Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte "Anthropologie, psychanalyse
    et civilisation du Brésil dans l'entre-deux-guerres". Jorge Pantaleon :
    "L'anthropologie, les ONG, et le développement."

    - "Initiation aux Littératures francophones (Afrique, Amérique du Nord,
    Europe)", Association des publications de la Faculté des Lettres de Nice,
    I993. Sous la direction de Chemain-Degrange Arlette -209 p. Actes d'un
    colloque organisé à Nice Sophia Antipolis en décembre 1990 en présence du
    Ministre de la Francophonie Alain Decaux et du Ministre de la Culture du
    Congo, avec la participation du Haut Conseil de la Francophonie
    (S.Farandjis), les communications reproduites restent stimulantes. Elles
    prennent un intérêt historique compte tenu du décès de certains intervenants
    et de l'évolution du contexte africain par exemple. Elles comportent la mise
    en perspective "d'Aires littéraires francophones comparées", l'observation
    des "Interférences linguistiques", et une réflexion sur les phénomènes de
    "Réception - Lecture" autorisant une "ouverture pédagogique et pratique".

    - "Imaginaires francophones", Centre de Recherches Littéraires
    Pluridisciplinaires, Cellule Recherche de l'Universté, Association des
    Publications de la Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines de
    l'Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, I996, Textes réunis par Chemain Roger
    et Chemain-Degrange Arlette. 465 p. Au croisement entre deux axes de
    recherche dont l'un se fonde sur une analyse qu'inspirent "Les structures
    anthropologiques de l'imaginaire" (préface G. Durand), et l'autre tente une
    réflexion sur les acquis littéraires francophones.

    - "Imaginaire et littérature II" - Recherches francophones, Centre de
    Recherches littéraires pluridisciplinaires, Département Recherche de
    l'Université, Association des publications de la Faculté des Lettres de
    Nice, juin 1998, sous la direction de Chemain Roger et Chemain Degrange
    Arlette. 352 p. Entre des créations de langue française représentant la
    proche ou la grande périphérie sans que ce terme soit péjoratif, entre des
    textes "écartés", éloignés les uns des autres sinon mis à l'écart,
    s'affirment des correspondances ou des distorsions qui aident à percevoir
    l'originalité d'oeuvres "émergentes" estimées selon les cas hybrides ou

    - La répartition en aires orientales (Esquisse d'une structuration de
    l'imaginaire chinois par S.Chaoying, Mythes coréens par S.Chae), aires
    méditerranéennes, subsahariennes n'exclut pas le regroupement autour d'axes
    thématiques : symbolique du sang dans la poésie de Senghor, figure du père
    de part et d'autre du Sahara, mythe arabe (textes d'orientalistes français
    et d'auteurs maghrébins francophones), syncrétisme religieux animiste et
    chrétien dans l'oeuvre ultime, la narration U Tam'sienne des "Fruits si doux
    de l'arbre à pain". "L'Afrique des royaumes" est perçue par France Frémeaux.
    Au-delà des catégories génériques se situent les transfigurations épiques
    des romans de Yachar Kemal (S.Yilancioglu), ou d'Ahmadou Kourouma (G.Soro,
    G.Lezou) etc.

    - "La lettre de la CADE", Coordination pour l'Afrique de demain, mars 2001,
    n°43. Ce numéro présente entre autres le compte-rendu de la rencontre-débat
    du 28 fév. 01 sur "l'Islam en Afrique au sud du Sahara".

    Parutions :

    - "Malika Mokeddem : envers et contre tout", sous la direction de Yolande
    Aline Helm, Editions l'Harmattan, 2000.

    - "Le Racisme, une haine identitaire", Daniel Sibony, Seuil, Points-essais,
    mars 01.

    - "L'Esclavage - Libérations, abolitions, commémorations", ouvrage collectif
    sous la direction de Christiane Chaulet-Auchour et Romuald-Blaise Fonfoua,
    Carnets Séguier n°5, 350 p., 119 F. Le sujet de ce livre n'est pas
    d'édulcorer l'horreur de l'esclavage, mais d'en mieux comprendre la nature
    et de savoir ce qu'il convient de célébrer en évoquant son abolition. Cet
    ouvrage critique rassemble des réflexions consacrées à l'esclavage et ses
    abolitions. Il sollicite l'analyse historique, politique, sociologique,
    économique, psychanalytique et culturelle.

    - "Les politiques de l'anthropologie : discours et pratiques en France
    (1860-1940)", dir. Claude Blanckaert, L'Harmattan, 2001. Parmi les divers
    articles, concernent plus spécialement des thèmes africanistes : - P.
    Desmet, "Abel Hovelacque et l'ecole de linguistique naturelle : de
    l'inégalité des langues a l'inégalité des races" - E. Sibeud, "La fin du
    voyage. De la pratique coloniale a la pratique ethnographique" - B. De
    l'Estoile, "Des races non pas inférieures, mais différentes : de
    l'Exposition coloniale au Musée de l'Homme"

    - "Dictionnaire du cinéma afro-américain", Régis Dubois, Séguier Editions,
    coll. "Ciné Séguier", mars 01, 380 p., 110 F. Informatif, analytique et
    critique, ce dictionnaire dresse le portrait de plus de 200 acteurs,
    réalisateurs, scénaristes, compositeurs, chorégraphes et autres techniciens
    du cinéma afro-américain, des plus célèbres aux moins connus, à travers un
    siècle d'images.

    - "Mélanges Euro-Africains - cinquante ans d'articles du / en hommage au
    Prof. Max Liniger-Goumaz", Ed. Claves Para El Futuro, Madrid 01, 2 vol., 576
    p. et 536 p. Pour marquer leur respect, reconnaissance et affection,
    étudiants, collègues et amis s'unissent dans deux livres-hommage au
    Professeur Max Liniger-Goumaz. Outre la persévérance du combattant des
    droits de l'homme et de l'enseignant talentueux (qui a également participé à
    Africultures), les contributions (français, espagnol, anglais) éclairent des
    pans géographiques et historiques de l'Afrique, d'histoire de la Suisse, de
    réflexions sur les institutions internationales et leur action, voire sur
    l'hypocrisie qui sévit dans les relations internationales, en particulier
    dans le cas douloureux de la Guinée Equatoriale.


    - Comores : la liberté de la presse menacée aux Comores. Allaoui Saïd Omar,
    le rédacteur en chef du journal "La Gazette des Comores" est en procès, pour
    avoir publié un communiqué de presse en provenance du syndicat d¹opposition
    des Comores. L'avocat de M. Omar a également été arrêté et écarté de la cour
    de justice au beau milieu de sa plaidoirie. Maître Larifou a été arrêté par
    un escadron de l'armée et relâché plus tard dans la même journée, sans
    explication pour justifier de sa détention. Dans son article du dimanche 18
    mars, le journal en ligne comorien Comores-Infos publiait les propos qui
    suivent dans son éditorial, propos signés par la rédaction : "Il n'existe
    pas de démocratie véritable dans un pays sans respect de la liberté de la
    presse. Ceux qui aujourd'hui s'en prennent à la Gazette , visent tout
    simplement à museler la liberté de la presse aux Comores. "En arrêtant de
    manière grotesque et cavalière l'avocat de la Gazette /S/ le pouvoir
    militaire vient de démontrer avec éclat qu'il méprise l'institution
    judiciaire. Ils viennent de donner au monde entier l'image d'une république
    bananière." Si vous voulez apporter votre soutien à La Gazette des Comores,
    vous pouvez rédiger un message sur le site suivant, sur lequel vous pourrez
    également lire les commentaires et les messages de nombreuses organisations
    et personnalités qui soutiennent "La Gazette des Comores".


    News :

    - Afrique du Sud : La chanteuse Miriam Makeba nommée "ambassadeur de bonne
    volonté". Le président Thabo Mbeki a annoncé la nomination de "Mama Africa"
    le 15 février. C'est une manière de renforcer les liens d'amitié et de
    solidarité entre l'Afrique du Sud et les autres pays africains. Source :
    Bulletin d'Afrique du Sud.

    - Salon Hip Hop : La Compagnie "dans la rue la danse" organise un salon Hip
    Hop les 8 et 9 juin 01. Depuis 5 ans, "dans la rue la danse" organise le
    "Tremplin régional de danse urbaine". Face à la forte mobilisation et à la
    demande croissante de diverses structures commerciales ou associatives
    désirant exposer leurs produits ou services, "dans la rue la danse" a
    décidé pour 2001 de mettre sur place ce salon Hip Hop les 8 et 9 juin la
    veille de la finale du "Tremplin régional de danse urbaine" le 10 juin 2001.

    Sorties :

    - Marie Paul : Sortie du dernier album "Ko Debout", de l'artiste congolais
    Ashisha Belesi Marie Paul et son Wengue El Paris.

    - Chérif Mbaw : Sortie le 13 mars de "Kham Kham" chez Détour / Warner
    Classics France. L'album de ce chanteur, compositeur et auteur sénégalais
    combine l'écriture musicale de ses racines traditionnelles, les techniques
    plus classiques acquises au Conservatoire de Paris et réunit une quinzaine
    de musiciens des quatre coins du monde.

    - Soriba Kouyaté : Sortie le 20 avril de l'album "Bamana", Act Music,
    distribution Night & Day. Le grand joueur de kora propose un album où la
    culture mandingue se marrie au jazz.

    - Gilbert Pounia : Sortie de l'album "4 ti mo", du chanteur réunionais.


    - Bièvres - Bala Fola - spectacle de contes africains interprété par trois
    comédiens et accompagné en musique par un griot burkinabé, 26 et 27 mars à
    17 h, centre culturel Louis Ratel. première création de la compagnie de l'

    - Sénégal : l'Atelier Théâtre Sénégalais est en tournée en France, invité
    par la Fédération des Oeuvres Laïques pour une série d'interventions /
    animations en milieu scolaire. Ils présentent leur pièce, "les lignes du
    monde". "Entre les "lignes du monde" tout spectateur doit apprendre à
    distinguer les symboles du calvaire : celle de la haine et celle de l'
    amour." Atelier Théâtre Sénégalais - contact : FOL Lyon 04 72 60 04 70,
    Michel Matera.


    - La bibliothèque d'Africultures ! Une deuxième parution dans cette nouvelle
    collection aux Editions L'Harmattan : Djibril Diop Mambety, la caméra au
    bout. du nez, par Nar Sene. Un livre un peu fou sur un réalisateur un peu
    fou ! Présentation à partir de la page d'accueil du site.

    - Notre dernier dossier : "Gabon culture ?" est en ligne (sur abonnement),
    ainsi que tous les articles du cahier critique (accès libre).

    - Mort tragique de Moses Molelekwa, l'étoile montante du jazz sud-africain.
    Correspondance d'Afrique du Sud.

    - Toute une série d'articles nouvellement traduits en anglais sur la version
    anglaise du site.


    - Revue on line : Ecarts d'identité, excellente revue trimestrielle sur
    l'intégration, est désormais accessible sur le web.


    Les petites annonces rencontrent un grand succès dont nous nous réjouissons.
    Elles sont entièrement gratuites et vous permettent d'annoncer des cours ou
    des stages, de chercher ou proposer un emploi, de trouver un djembe à
    vendre, de chercher de l'aide pour une étude, un correspondant, votre

    Pour un contact direct, vous pouvez aussi annoncer dans cette lettre.


    Pour vous désabonner, vous pouvez entrer votre email et cliquer sur
    "résiliation" en page d'accueil du site, ou à défaut nous envoyer un mail à C'est également à cette adresse que vous pouvez
    nous envoyer des informations. La lettre étant gérée par un serveur, on ne
    peut lui répondre directement.


    Reproduction totale ou partielle dans les listes de diffusion autorisée avec
    mention de la source : Lettre d'information d'Africultures (archives en ligne). Semaine ...../2001, du ... au ...
    Reproduction dans les sites internet et les média soumise à copyright
    international. S'adresser à la rédaction. Notre travail (de titan !) à une
    valeur que la diffusion de nos contenus doit pouvoir financer pour assurer
    notre autonomie : les contrevenants seront poursuivis.


    Contacts mail :

    Rédaction :
    Agenda / Murmures :
    Partenariats /Liens / Bons Plans :
    Webmaster / petites annonces :

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    Decouvrez Ca M', et repartez avec un ordinateur portable Sony,
    un palm V, etc...
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    Pour vous desabonner de ce groupe cliquez ici:

    Globalization and Water Management: Call for Papers

    First Call for Papers (abstracts due April 30th, 2001)


    Hosted by Dundee University Water Law and Policy
    Programme & American Water Resources Association
    University of Dundee, Scotland,
    August 6th-8th, 2001
    First Call for Papers (abstracts due April 30th, 2001)

    "Globalization and Water Management: The
    Changing Value of Water"

    Hosted by Dundee University Water Law and Policy
    Programme & American Water Resources Association

    University of Dundee,
    August 6th-8th, 2001,

    To discuss the impacts of globalization on water
    management in the early 21st century, providing an
    opportunity for an interdisciplinary approach to water

    resources management (law, policy, economics and

    * Examine models of integrating law, policy,
    economics and science.

    * Present emerging state of the art approaches to the
    valuation of water resources.

    * Review the changing trends of ownership and control
    of water resources.

    * Identify practical actions and management strategies

    to deal with the projected stresses on water resources
    examples of true integrated land and water

    * Examine water law issues, such as problems with
    existing legislation, enforcement mechanisms,
    incentives for compliance, dispute avoidance

    For full conference announcement and electronic
    submittal of asbtracts, see



    IIS/IDF Development and Information 01 Seminar on Impact Evaluation of
    Services and Projects is being held at the London Voluntary Sector Resource
    Centre, Holloway, London on Wednesday 6 June 2001.
    Institute of Information Scientists (IIS)/Information for Development Forum
    (IDF) Annual Development and Information Seminar Series.

    IIS/IDF Development and Information 01 Seminar on Impact Evaluation of
    Services and Projects is being held at the London Voluntary Sector Resource
    Centre, Holloway, London on Wednesday 6 June 2001.

    Chair: June Stephen (Oxfam)
    09.15 - 09.40 Registration and Coffee
    09.40 - 09.45 Introduction
    09.45 - 10.30 The Changing Role of Information in Development - Chris
    Zielinski (Infomania Ltd)
    10.30 - 10.45 Questions and Discussion
    10.45 - 11.15 Coffee
    11.15 - 11.45 Impact of Information in DFID Natural Resource Systems - Pat
    Norrish (University of Reading)
    11.45 - 12.15 Beyond Circles in Square Boxes: Lessons Learned from Health
    Communication Impact Evaluations - Rob Vincent (Healthlink Worldwide)
    12.15 - 12.30 Questions and Discussion
    12.30 - 13.30 Lunch
    13.30 - 14.00 Rural Infoshops and Poverty Alleviation. It is Time for an
    Evaluation - Basheer Shadrach and Ron Summers (University of Loughborough)
    14.00 - 14.30 RUFDATA Impact Assessment Methodology - Stephen Shaw
    (British Council)
    14.30 - 14.45 Questions and Discussion
    14.45 - 15.15 Tea
    15.15 - 15.45 Book Aid International: Monitoring and Evaluation, and Steps
    towards Impact Assessment - Jeff Samuelson (Book Aid International)
    15.45 - 16.15 IDRC Information Impact Programme and Recent Developments -
    Michel Menou (City University)
    16.15 - 16.45 Discussion of Seminar and Conclusions

    Prices are 75 pounds sterling plus VAT for IIS/IDF Members, 90 pounds
    sterling plus VAT for non-members.

    For a booking form, please contact:
    Institute of Information Scientists
    39-41 North Road, London, N7 9DP
    Tel: (+44) 020 7619 0624/0625
    Fax: (+44) 020 7619 0627
    E-mail: <>

    The general aim of this seminar, building on the success of previous
    seminars, is to raise the awareness of a range of impact evaluations being
    used for international development information and knowledge activities,
    including monitoring and assessment. Concentration has been placed on
    obtaining contributions from organisations and experts in the field of
    assessment, monitoring, evaluation and impact of development
    information/knowledge services and projects. It is anticipated that there
    will be about 50 attendees, central to the theme of the seminar. It will be
    of interest to all concerned with development and related
    information/knowledge activities. In particular, it will interest those
    evaluating such activities especially relating to information providers
    evaluating new markets, users wanting to access and evaluate
    information/knowledge from areas which have historically provided a number
    of problems and difficulties, and to other development
    information/knowledge specialists and policy makers. The papers from
    previous seminars in this series are available at

    The Institute of Information Scientists was founded in 1958 to raise the
    profile and status of information science as a profession. The Institute
    continues to pursue this objective by promoting high standards of
    information work, by influencing and approving educational courses in
    information science, and by encouraging contacts among its current
    membership of over 2,600 professionals in the UK and abroad. The Institute
    operates through local Branches and Committees reporting to the Council of
    the Institute. The IIS also has Special Interest Groups for its members with
    interests in on-line information, patents and trademarks, local government,
    and financial and business information. The Institute is registered as a
    charity under the Charities Act 1960.

    As the former Information for Development Coordinating Committee (IDCC), the
    Information for Development Forum was initially formed in 1987 by
    representatives of a wide range of UK organisations and now has a corporate
    membership in excess of 100. It is concerned with various aspects of
    information provision, technology and policy related to education and
    training in the development environment. IDF aims to assist in the
    coordination and cooperation of organisations in this field with particular
    regard to the needs and concerns of developing/emerging/transitional


    Role of Students in Bridging the Digital Divide


    Learn about the IT problems facing Africa and how you can help solve them. Register for a FREE CONFERENCE , April 6, 2001.
    The MIT-AITI is honored to extend you an invitation to our 1st Conference on the "Role of Students in Bridging the Digital Divide", scheduled for April 6th, 2001, in Boston, Massachusetts at MIT. The MIT-AITI Committee, the advisory board and the entire organisation sincerely hope that you will take advantage of this opportunity to enhance your knowledge on the Digital Divide, as well as your personal perspective of the efforts being undertaken to solve the problem.

    The panel discussions will provide you with leading-edge information on the Digital Divide. The conference will address two main objectives. First, to raise awareness about the digital divide - its gravity and consequences. More specifically, we will address the opportunities present for students to assist in closing the widening gap of digital inequity. We will examine various student-led initiatives aimed at bridging the digital divide, and pay close attention to the challenges and impact of these efforts. In the course of the panel discussion, we will exchange ideas on successful approaches used in the past, and brainstorm on future methods. The second panel discussion will focus on corporate support for student initiatives on bridging the digital divide. In this panel discussion, we will examine the role of corporate support in enhancing student-led projects on the digital divide. Why should corporations - both in the US and in Africa - be interested in bridging the digital divide? What would it take to obtain corporate support in funding student-led initiatives? Are there any preconditions for such partnerships or funding? What evaluation criteria or milestones need to be considered in proposing a compelling, high-impact project? What has been the corporate involvement in the past? What were the lessons from such past projects? We will also discuss projects which have addressed digital inequity within the US, and examine which solutions can be applied to developing countries.

    To conclude the conference we will showcase an MIT student-led initiative addressing the digital divide: the MIT-AITI Project. We will present an overview of the MIT-AITI project: its history, goals, successes and future initiatives.

    Our opening keynote speaker is Dr. Nicholas Negroponte founder MIT Media Lab whilst Dr. Nii Quaynor , CEO Network Computer Systems Ghana will deliver the closing speech. We also have a host expert panelists who will discuss critical issues pertaining to the digital divide. We are excited about the opportunity to present these internationally recognized individuals to our 2001 Conference attendees, and thank all our sponsors, the MIT Graduate Office, the Chancellor's Office , the Provost's Office and the MIT-Media Lab for there ongoing support with this endeavor.

    We invite you to share a magnificent day of education, experiences and networking with faculty, student and industry. The objective of the AITI Conference ­ bridging the divide is achievable through your participation!

    Yours Sincerely,

    MIT-AITI Committee

    Proceedings of the MIM Pan-African Conference - now available


    Proceedings of the MIM Pan-African Conference
    Durban, South Africa, 1999
    Now available in hard copy!
    Proceedings of the MIM Pan-African Conference
    Durban, South Africa, 1999
    Now available in hard copy!

    A hard copy of the Proceeding will be sent to everyone who attended
    the Durban Conference. Anyone else who would like a copy should write
    to the following e-mail address:
    or send a fax to the following number:

    Institutions that would like more copies for distribution are also
    welcome to request copies.

    We are in the process of organizing the Third MIM Pan-African Confer-
    ence, which will be held in Arusha, Tanzania, 18-22 November 2002. We
    have just held the first meeting of the Conference Scientific Advi-
    sory Committee - in Harare, Zimbabwe, 12-13 March 2001. Decisions on
    the theme of the Conference and scientific content were made - a list
    of the recommendation will be posted on the MIM Conference website in
    approximately a week - so please check the site:
    as we look forward to hearing from you on the scientific content.

    Please send your comments and suggestions to:
    Dr. Martin Alilio
    Conference organizer
    Fax: +1-301-402-2056


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